Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Mexico, Central America and the caribbean

The book, Victors and Vanquished: Spanish and Nahua Views of the Conquest of Mexico, made use of extracts from an report taken by Bernal Diaz in 1632 regarding the victory of the Spaniards. The book also made use of the statements made by the native Nahua survivors which were collected by Bernardino de Sahagun. The book showed how differences of opinion or biases as well as personal interests could play as a major factor in the interpretation of a particular event. Among the many strong points of the book is the fact that it gave its reader a broad assessment and analysis of the main sources which historians used when describing the events that occurred and the consequences that the conquest of Mexico had entailed.   The fact that Schwartz divided the book into two central sections is proof enough that he considered his readers to be primarily composed of students. The book had been divided into two separate sections, â€Å"Chronology of the Conquest of Tenochtitlan† and a helpful dictionary which tackles terms used by both the Spanish and the Nahua. Mexica is used as a reference to those people who have control of the Tenochititlan before the arrival of the Spaniards in 1519. Today’s modern day Mexico had been dominated by the Mexica and that is primarily the reason why the people they have conquered speaks their tongue, Nahuatl thus not all those who speaks the language of Nahuatl can be considered as a Mexica. But there are people living in the South (which we now refer to as Central America) who make use of some Mayan dialects in speaking. The Nahua’s are Native Americans who lives in Central and eastern Mexico. The first part of the book provided us with an introduction of the history of the Mesoamerica during the conquest. It also showed how diverse those Mesoamericans are during that time. Another important thing that the writer of the book considered is how the difference of ethnicity could affect a retelling of a particular history thus the author made use of the primary sources gathered by both Spanish as well as the indigenous people. Schwartz gave an illustration of the coming of the Mexica. He also described how the Mexica build their capital, Tenochtitlan. The book also showed in detail how bitter the relationship of the indigenous people is with their conquerors, the Mexica. It also offered a description of the character of those Spaniards conqueror that inhabited both the Caribbean and the Central America. Schwartz also showed how greatly the Spaniards differ from the Natives especially in recording important events on their history. The latter made use of hieroglyphic texts which are usually accompanied by dance, tales and songs. Schwartz also made it a point to show how different the stories presented by both sides in recounting the events that occurred during the conquest. It is very puzzling how the same event could be recounted differently, dependent on who is the teller of the said event. Schwartz said that the primary reason for this difference is the fact that both sides had their own interests they wish to preserve. Those interests includes a mixture of politics, personal as well as cultural things each side wish to protect. Schwartz analyzed the texts based on the reasons which motivated different writers into writing the event between the indigenous people and the Mexica. He showed some examples on which a particular author made his report not merely because he wants to recount the exact things which happened during that time, but rather because he that author wants to please a certain patron. There are other examples which showed that religion affected the retelling of the said events. It showed that there are people who tried to justify their joining of the conquest in terms of their religion, particularly that of the Roman Catholic Church. On one particular chapter on the book, Schwartz noted that Diaz Del Castillo (one of his primary sources) had made use of other sources on recounting the events which occurred on the massacre of Mexica aristocrats (Things Fall Apart). Another thing Schwartz pointed out is the fact that previous enemies of the Aztecs (Mexica) had written most of the Tlaxacallan accounts and thus these writers had been biased on their retelling because of their yearning for people to view the Mexica as despicable people. I would rather make use of the term conquest in defining the relationship between the Nahua and the Spaniards. I have made use of that particular term because that is exactly what happened between the Spaniards and the Nahua. The Spaniards gained the lands the Nahua previously had by conquering its people and everything that goes within it. I mean they did not acquire the land by buying them, did they? The term cultural exchange may also be appropriate in describing the relationship between the Spaniards and the Nahua because it is very common for the conquerors to make those people they have conquered adapt to their cultures. This is very evident on the fact that the indigenous people have learned the language of their conquerors and they are using it even up to now. This adaptation could occur because of the length of exposure they have had with each other and mostly because of cross-marriages. Also, as conquerors they would want their religion to be known worldwide and thus they have made use of their power in order to make the natives into Christians. One of the primary reasons the Spaniards have in justifying their conquest is to make the word of their God be known to all and thus it is no wonder that they have made use of their power in order to convert the people they have conquered into Christians. However, religion could be just a tactics the conquerors may have employed for some other ulterior motives which could either be gold or glory or a combination of both. As I have said the term conqueror would be more appropriate than the term cultural exchange because the change of culture is more predominant to the conquered rather than to the conquerors. Of course, the native may have had influenced their conquerors in one way or another but most of these conquerors views the indigenous people as inferior and thus they would not want these people to influence them in any way. Thus, it is possible that no real exchange of culture really occurred especially since the change of culture is expected only from the conquered. The Conquest of Mexico City could also be viewed as a war between Spaniards and Spaniards as well as between Natives American and the Native Americans. This is very evident that the recounting of this historical events vary not only between the Spaniards and the Natives, rather the stories of the Spaniards vary even among themselves and same things can be told between the Natives. These differences among themselves may have occurred because of their differences of interests. For the Natives for one, some of them have adapted completely with the terms required by their conquerors and they view their being conquered as a blessing thus they support the Spaniards wherein some Natives do not want the conquerors in their lands and they view the things done by the Spaniards as nothing but abused on the Natives and thus they would recount their tales in such a way that the Spaniards would look like a real villain. To conclude, I think that the book presented both sides of the story well in such a way that the author did his best in order not to pick sides. He recounted the Conquest in a manner which attempted to give his readers a good view to both sides of the parties involved. Thus, all in all, the book is an interesting read and it is very beneficial especially for those who want to gain knowledge about the Conquest of Mexico. Reference: Schwartz, Stuart B. Victors and the Vanquished: Spanish and Nahua Views of the Conquest of Mexico (2000). Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000.      

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Employee Attitudes and Job Satisfaction

Assignment on: Employee Attitudes and Job Satisfaction Done by: T. K. Cedric Wan Wing Kai(081461) Cohort: BSc (Hons) Human Resource Management 09 Part Time Table of Contents Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 3 Employee Attitude†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦4 * Features of Attitudes†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢ € ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 4 Attitudes, Opinions and Beliefs†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 5 Factors in Attitude formation†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 6 Methods of Attitude change†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 6 Values and attitudes†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Values and Behavior†¦Ã¢â ‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 7 Attitude of employees towards the organization†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 8 Job Satisfaction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦9 Job Design†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦9 Models of Job Satisfaction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 9 * Affect Theory†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦9 * Dispositional Theory†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 10 * Two-Factor Theory†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦10 Measuring Job Satisfaction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 11 Superior-Subordinate Communication†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 1 Relationships and Practical implications†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 12 Employee Attitudes in Relation to Job Satisfaction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 12 References†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 13 â€Å"Job satisfaction is an attitude, but researches should clearly distinguish between cognitive evaluation which are emotions, beliefs and behaviors†, Weiss(2002) Introduction: The way one is satisfied with one’s job depends on many factors. Both internal and external factors affect the attitudes of employees which lead to satisfaction or dissatisfaction in one’s job. What makes employees happy?Are they more productive when happy or less productive when happy? What are the causes of employee attitudes? What is the impact of positive and negative job satisfaction on the employees? How to influence employee attitudes? All those questions are going to be answered in this study of Attitudes and Job Satisfaction. People have their own beliefs, norms and views. Due to this, employees will not always behave in the same way as they are not the same, even though they may be performing the same job at a same given level. Jo b satisfaction is referred to how much an employee is satisfied and happy with his or her job.The happier people are with their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Employee Attitude: As it has been briefly stated in the introduction, employees have attitudes or point of views about different aspects of their jobs, their career and the organization in which they work. Allport defines attitude as follows: â€Å"Attitude is a mental and neural state of readiness organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual’s response to all objects and situations with which it is related† Features of attitude: Attitudes affect an individual’s behavior making him ready to respond either favorably or unfavorably to things in his environment. * Attitudes are acquired through a learning process over a period of time. It is a never-ending process that starts from childhood throughout the life of a person. * Attitudes cannot be seen with the naked eyes because they are psychological phenomenon which cannot be observed directly. They can be examined by observing the behavior of an individual. * Attitudes are pervasive and every individual has some kind of attitude towards objects in his surroundings.In fact, attitudes are forced in the socialization process and may relate to anything in his environment. Attitude, Opinion and Belief: An opinion is in general one’s judgmental expression of a particular set of facts, an evaluation of the circumstances presented to him. Thurstone defines opinion as ‘a response to a specifically limited stimulus, but the response is certainly influenced by the predisposition with, with the individual is operating, that is, the attitude structure’. A difference can also be made between attitude and belief.A belief is an enduring organization of perceptions and cognitions about some aspects of individual world whereas belief is a hypothesis concerning the nature of objects, more particularly, concerning one’s judgement of the probability regarding the nature. In this sense, belief is the cognitive component of attitude which reflects the manner in which an object is perceived. The difference between attitude, opinion and belief exists on conceptual basis. Most researchers believe that these three terms are so closely tied that it is difficult to separate them except on a limited conceptual basis.Many psychologists however think that attitudes are more important to human behavior than are the related aspects. For instance, more efforts have been put into analyzing attitudes rather than others. It is obvious to say that attitudes are an important concern because of their main position in the process of changing work perquisites in efforts. Attitude itself do not influence behavior but these acts with other factors in the individual influencing behavior, such as personality, perception, motivation and others. Further, attitudes are also a ffected by the individual dimension as well as the objects, persons and ideas.Attitudes have been through as serving four functions and there by influencing the behavior. These are: 1. Instrumental – Attitude are a way to reach a desired objective or to avoid an unwanted one. Instrumental attitude are aroused by the activation of a need or cues that are associated with the attitude object and arouse favorable or unfavorable feelings. 2. Ego-Defensive – The ego-defensive functions of attitude focus on the importance of psychological thought. Attitude may be acquired by facing threats in the external world or becoming aware of his own unacceptable impulses. . The value – Orientation function takes into account attitudes that are held because they express a person’s self-image, or by cues that engage the person’s values and make them salient to him. 4. Knowledge – The knowledge function of attitude is based on a person’s need to maintain a stable, organized and meaningful structure of the world. 5. Attitude that gives a standard against which someone evaluates the facets of his world and use it as the knowledge function too. These functions of attitudes affect the individual’s way of interpreting the information coming to him.Since they affect work requirements and work responses, information about the way people feel about their jobs can be very useful in way people will behave about their job. Thus, these types of attitudes can create areas of enquiry for making the employee and the organization more compatible. Factors in Attitude Formation The attitudes are learned. Generally, an individual learn things from his surroundings, that is, the environment in which they interact, even though there are different approaches to learning those. Thus, for an attitude to be formed, all the factors from which people learn must be taken into consideration.Such factors may be examined in terms of groups starting from t he family itself as a group, an individual moves in a close group, then to larger groups, and finally to the society as a whole. Being part of these groups, the individual’s psychology which makes up his personality particularly, is also responsible for behavior and attitudes. Methods of Attitude Change There are various ways through which a positively attitude change can be brought. Cohen has suggested four methods for attitude change: 1. Communication of additional information 2.Approval or disapproval of a particular attitude 3. Group influence 4. Inducing engagement in discrepant behavior. In any way, all these methods involve getting to know discrepancies among the elements making up the individual’s attitudes. From an organizational point of view, a Manager can take the following actions making attitudes of members of the organization to change. * Group action * Persuasion through leadership * Persuasion through communication and * Influence of total situation Th ese actions involve analysis of different aspects affecting a particular action. Values and AttitudesSome researchers view values as being made of large groups of related attitudes. For instance, Fishbein and Ajzen have included two components in attitudes-informational and emotional. Thus, they have taken values as a part of attitudes. However, there are some differences between values and attitudes. Attitudes are specific and related to distinct objects which are people or ideas. Values are more general than attitudes. Statement of values that people have generally is often perceived as good or bad. Values are beliefs about which attitudes we should have or not. Values and BehaviorThe behavior of people is inclined by the values which they embrace, particularly in terms of those stimuli which have some value orientation in the organizational context, understanding the influence of individual value system on the behavior of individuals in the following ways: * Values influence the way an individual perceives problems he or she faces and also the decision he or she makes to tackle those problems. * Values influences the way in which someone looks at other people and groups of people, that is, interpersonal relationship. Values are the base of interpersonal relationship interactions. People judge organizational success as well as its achievement of the basis of their value system. Thus, for some people, organizational success may be in the form of high- profit earning irrespective of the means adopted whereas, this may be a harsh thing for others. * Individuals determine whether behaviors that they adopt are either ethical or unethical whether towards themselves or others * Values determine the extent to which employees accept organizational pressures and goals. If these do not correspond to the values held by them, they oppose the organizational pressures and objectives, and even quit their job.Attitudes of Employees towards the Organization Attitudes and valu es are not the same but they are interrelated. It can be seen by examining the three components of attitudes which are cognition, affect and behavior. The belief that ‘discrimination is wrong’ is a value statement. * Cognitive Component of an Attitude – It sets the phase for the more important part of an attitude and is reflected in the statements of evaluation concerning objects, people or events. The behavioral component of an attitude refers to an intentional way to act in a certain manner towards someone or something.In an Organization, attitudes are crucial, because they affect job behavior. If for instance, employees believe that their superiors and other people at managerial levels are all doing a conspiracy to make them work harder for the same wage, then, it is important to try to comprehend how those attitudes that reflect their beliefs were formed and how those can be changed. Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction has been defined as ‘a pleasurable e motional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job’. Job satisfaction describes how happy an employee is with his or her job.People are said to be more satisfied the happier they are with their job. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked, that is, someone will be more motivated to work if he or she likes the job being practiced by the latter. Job Design Job design tries to improve job satisfaction along with performance. The methods used include job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment. Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous work position.Job satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organizations. Rating scales are mostly used to measure the level of job satisfaction. Employees are brought to report their reactions to their jobs. The questions are relative to the rate of pay, work responsibilities, v ariety of tasks, promotional opportunities, the work itself and co-workers. Models of Job Satisfaction Affect Theory Edwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model.The main principle of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e. g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are or aren’t met. When a person likes a specific facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who doesn’t value that facet.For example, if a certain Employee A prefers autonomy in the workspace and another Employee B does not care about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that al lows a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied with little or no autonomy as compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet. Dispositional Theory Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory.It is a theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one’s job. This approach became a considerable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory) Frederick Hertzberg’s Two factor theory, also known as motivator hygiene theory, attempts to explain satisfaction in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors hich are motivation and hygiene factors respectively. An employee’s motivation to work is continually related to job satisfaction of a subordinate. Motivation can be seen as an inner force that drives individuals to reach personal and organizational goals. Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job or the work carried out.Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions While Hertzberg’s model has stimulated much research, researchers have not been able to reliably empirically prove the model, with Hackman & Oldham suggesting that Hertzberg’s original formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact. Moreover, the theory does not consider individual differences, conversely predictin g all employees will react in an identical manner to change in motivating/hygiene factors.Finally, the model has been criticized in that it does not specify how motivating and hygiene factors are to be measured. Measuring Job Satisfaction There are many methods for measuring job satisfaction. By far, the most common method for collecting data regarding job satisfaction is the Likert Scale named after Rensis Likert. A Likert Scale is a psychometric scale commonly used in questionnaires, and is the most widely used scale in survey research, such that the term is often used interchangeably with rating scale even though the two are not synonyms.When responding to a Likert questionnaire, participators specify their level of agreement to a statement. Other less common methods used for measuring job satisfaction include: yes/no question, True/False questions, point systems, checklists and forced choice answers. This data is typically collected using an Enterprise Feedback Management system . The Job Descriptive Index(JDI), created by Smith, Kendall & Hulin(1969), is a specific questionnaire of job satisfaction that has been widely used. It measures one’s satisfaction in five ways: pay, promotions and promotion opportunities, coworkers, supervision and the work itself.Superior-Subordinate Communication Superior-subordinate communication influences greatly job satisfaction in the workplace. The way in which a subordinate perceives a supervisor’s behavior can positively or negatively influence job satisfaction. Communication behavior such as facial expression, eye contact, vocal expression and body movement is crucial to the superior-subordinate relationship. Non verbal messages can play a central role in interpersonal interactions with respect to impression formation, deception, attraction, social influence and satisfaction.Individuals who dislike and think negatively about their supervisors are less willing to communicate or be motivated to work whereas i ndividuals who like and think positively about their supervisor are most likely to communicate and be satisfied with their job and work environment. The relationship a subordinate holds with their supervisor is a very important aspect in the workplace. Relationships and practical implications Job satisfaction can be an important indicator of how employees feel about their jobs and a predictor of work behaviors such as organizational citizenship, absenteeism and turnover.Further, job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and deviant work behaviors. One common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life satisfaction. This correlation is reciprocal, meaning people who are satisfied with life tend to be satisfied with their job and people who are satisfied with their job ten to be satisfied in life. However, some research has found that job satisfaction is not significantly related to life satisfaction when other variables suc h as non-work satisfaction and core self-evaluations are taken into account. Employee attitude in relation to Job SatisfactionEmployees in a work place will not have the same attitudes and level of job satisfaction. Because of various factors such as age, race, sex, religion, values, beliefs, and many other factors, employees will react very differently from one another within a work place. People perceive things differently and will eventually not feel the same in a job, even though conditions such as wage, environment and management are the same. Some employees may be more satisfied than others. References http://www. wikipedia. org http://www. scribd. com Essentials of Organisational Behavior by Stephen Robbins, Timothy Judge http://books. google. com

Monday, July 29, 2019

A Historical Recording of a Fictitious Story Essay

One powerful factor in effective storytelling lies in the strong characterization of the figures in the story, and the novel, â€Å"Don Quixote† sustains this factor. In the beginning of the novel, Miguel de Cervantes warns his â€Å"idle readers† (Cervantes, page __) that he simply wants to relate the story of a stepson who lived a ridiculous but great life, saying thus: â€Å"My wish would be simply to present it to thee plain and unadorned, without any embellishment of preface or uncountable muster of customary sonnets, epigrams, and eulogies, such as are commonly put at the beginning of books. † (Cervantes, page__). The second part of the novel reveals a similar contention, this time uttered by Cide Hamete Benengeli in Chapter LXXIV. The reputed father of Don Quixote de La Mancha, Benengeli says, â€Å"For me alone Don Quixote was born and I for him. His was the power of action, mine of writing. † (Cervantes, page ___). By repeating these contentions, Miguel de Cervantes emphasizes and reiterates the idea that Don Quixote is a real character, a man who is not merely a product of a novelist’s imagination, but a tangible entity. Cervantes and his phantom figure, Benengeli, claim that they are merely recorders of Don Quixote’s deeds and misdeeds. Cervantes declares thus in his preface: â€Å"In belief of the good reception and honours that Your Excellency bestows on all sort of books, as prince so inclined to favor good arts, chiefly those who by their nobleness do not Customer’s last name 2 submit to the service and bribery of the vulgar, I have determined bringing to light The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of la Mancha. † (Cervantes, page__). Cervantes distances himself from the character by saying that he is merely a recorder of a person’s history, not a creator of a person so intriguingly chivalrous and comical at the same time. In doing so, Cervantes strengthens the character of Don Quixote, making him a mystery, and an enigma. Was he real, or was he imaginary? This intriguing question has kept readers all over the world and across generations to keep turning the pages of this humorous novel, and in this respect, Cervantes achieves his triumph in making the adventures of a tragic and comic knight-errant, a very engaging read. The two mentioned passages delineating one contention are significant in the reading of the novel as a whole. Promoting Don Quixote as a tangible entity, a real character, makes the novel more humorous, more effective, and more influential; the themes and sentiments imbibed in the story are therefore communicated more strongly. Cervantes provides a critical commentary on the Spanish lifestyle and morals at the time the novel was written, and one way to take a humorous novel seriously, is to project it as a palpable, realistic account of one person’s adventures and misadventures. This in itself is an ingenious literary style. Making Don Quixote an enigma and claiming that he is real, reflects the ridiculous and preposterous nature of the novel. Cervantes is ultimately making a literary statement: that in a world and in a time when chivalric ideals are appropriate, yet overrated, a society that is suspended between the grandiose aspects of chivalry and the humility of noble chivalric ideals must examine its principles very closely. If it fails to do, it may likewise fight windmills instead of giants, and therein lays a societal problem too unbelievably difficult to overcome. Works Cited Cervantes, M. Don Quixote. (Publication Information).

Russias new leader (International Relations) Essay

Russias new leader (International Relations) - Essay Example Under Putin, Russia began consolidating itself after the traumatic experiences of moving to a market economy and losing ground in Europe. Thus, the recent presidential elections have again raised the specter of nationalism and a call from the president elect, Medvedev to the Russian people to help him regain Russia’s past glory. This paper takes a look at what the Russian elections of 2008 mean for Russia and its quest to regain its past glory. I also take a look at what kind of leaders are Medvedev and Putin apart from examining the Russian-Georgian conflict and the way in which Putin handled the same. According to Stratfor, a website devoted to geo-political affairs, â€Å"Despite ongoing demographic, economic and geopolitical problems, Russia is using every political and economic — and, increasingly, military — tool at its disposal to reassert itself in the former Soviet Union and try to rake back its former geopolitical position† (George Friedman, 2008). This has been accompanied by a string of actions ranging from going to the aid of South Ossetia and flexing its muscles over the missile deployment in Eastern Europe. The fact that Russia is on the ascendant and is likely to play a prominent role in the great power equations of the 21st century has been noted by other commentators as well. â€Å"If Russia was where history most dramatically ended two decades ago, today it is where history has most dramatically returned. Russia’s turn toward liberalism at home stalled and then reversed, and so has its foreign policy. Great power nationalism has returned to Russia and with it traditional great power calculations and ambitions† (Robert Kagan, 2008). Thus, ever since Putin began consolidating powers in the presidency, there has been a marked shift in the tone and attitude of Russia towards the world. This is in line with the expectations of the Russian people who want to return to their days of glory as a

Sunday, July 28, 2019

The Working Poor Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Working Poor - Essay Example In a book written by Collins and Yeskel entitled â€Å"Economic Apartheid in America,† attention is focused on the widening gap between a few ultrawealthy individuals and the greater majority of people in the United States. The segregation spawns a culture of haves and have-nots. Those who struggle to attain a decent living wage for their families remain impoverished because the culture is skewed against them and fosters a poverty that is self-propagating. â€Å"This economic inequality comes from a mechanistic view of the world devoid of deep spiritual meaning, soul searching, and egalitarian human connection. It leaves little room for prioritizing fulfilling human relationships, nurturing the environment, or appreciating the sacred.† (Brettschneider, 2001) Despite the nation’s growing prosperity, real wages – that is, the money people can actually use from their paychecks – to stagnate or fall for more than half of the population. Inequality in wages between the highest and lowest paid workers is at its highest. The bottom 95 percent of the U.S. populace has less wealth than the top one percent of households. Seventy-five percent of workers have suffered some loss at work, such as loss of full-time employment, lack of retirement security, lack of health insurance, and loss of other similar benefits. 5. The United Nations Development Program reported in 1999 that the world’s 225 richest people have a combined wealth of $1 trillion, which is equivalent to the combined annual income of the world’s 2.5 billion poorest people. 6. The richest ten per cent of the world’s population receive about half (49.6%) of the total world income, while the bottom sixty percent (more than half) of the world’s population receive little more than one-tenth (13.9%) of the world’s income. In his book â€Å"The Working Poor†, David Shipler gave life

Saturday, July 27, 2019

A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings - Essay Example "A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings’’ is the reflection of relations between real and divine worlds. Firstly, it should be noted that there is no need to focus on reality of the events. It is better to open the minds of readers to new opportunities and creative triggers. It is even impossible to claim whether this angel is real or not, or from which world he has come from. Common people are unable to meet with the miracle and when they have this magic opportunity they even do not know what to do. Angel tries to teach people in patience, which is almost a supernatural feature and it is hardly conceivable by the people. There is no cruelty or anger about this angel. Maybe, it is his main intention to teach people to be more tolerant and friendly. This is the main question, I am interested in. A didactic nature of this story should be found in the Angel’s distant guidance of people and not in imposing doctrines of goodness or patience on them. The Angel is capable of making miracles, but people do not seem to be ready for them. Thus, for example, when he is asked to return vision to a blind man, the latter obtains three teeth. What is even more scaring is that people’s greediness prevents them from close relations with the h Angel and good natured emotions shown towards him. They are so much focused on their own troubles and even their achievements do not make them happier. Pelayo and Elisenda do not care much about the Angel, they just clean him from time to time, but they do not want to think deeply and obtain magical lessons from the Angel.

Friday, July 26, 2019

The different factors and effects of Air Pollution policies between Essay

The different factors and effects of Air Pollution policies between China and UK - Essay Example According to Gurjar, Molina and Ojha, air polluting emissions â€Å"occur at many stages in the life cycles of products and services, that is, from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse, recycling, through to ultimate disposal† (1). After being released, the emissions go through different chemical and physical changes leading to a variety of impacts on the environment and health of living things. In recent years, air pollution has caused harmful effects to human life. It has been realized that incidences of chronic illnesses have been constantly rising; the incidences and seriousness of acute illnesses have also increased, as well as mortality rates. Together with the health effects institute, Bates and Kennedy assert that â€Å"when air pollution began to have a significant deleterious effect on human life , it became necessary to discover and understand the links between emission sources and the air quality deterioration and h ealth effects they cause† (162). Currently, environmental social movement groups such as Greenpeace and Amnesty international are playing a significant role in influencing negotiations over environmental protection and management of oceans, the ozone layer, and nuclear deployments. In addition to that, they aid in enforcing national compliance with international mandates (Goodwin and Jasper 227). Scientist’s currently consider climate change, which is caused by air pollution as one of the most serious problems the world faces. Furthermore, the entire globe is also faced by the looming grave threat of global warming, which is a serious environmental security issue. In fact, climate change has a major impact on all aspects of human social and economic life (Yu 37). China’s Environmental History The environmental history of China is quite unique compared to that of other nations. Apart from being â€Å"one of the largest and most climatically diverse countries on t he planet† (Leibo 52), its population has been historically larger than that of other societies around the world. This â€Å"has seen Chinese territory significantly more impacted by human activity than the usual situation elsewhere† (Leibo 52). China was also among the most biologically diverse and affluent places on earth four thousand years ago. Ironically, the very rich biodiversity in China was the main explanation it has supported one-third of the human population at any given time. Initially, the effects of the large population on China’s environment were insignificant. However, with the subsequent spread and development of agriculture and clearance of farmland, the impact of the human population on the environment has become perceptible. The twentieth century has also been marked with the emergence of a consumer culture coupled with rapid industrialization. This has resulted in the rapid ecological degradation in China. Five Year Plan (1953-1957) and the Great Leap Forward (1958-1960) The five year (1953-1957) soviet inspired plan was adopted during the Chinese communist leader Mao Zedong’s era (Marks 273). This was due to his dissatisfaction with the Soviet model, because he concluded that it would lead the People’s Republic of China away from realizing their dream of attaining a socialist country. He instead adopted a ‘Maoist’ path, fast industrialization of a socialist China, with rapidly collectivized agriculture spearheading the

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Researched Literary Analysis Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Researched Literary Analysis Paper - Essay Example Henry V approaches this juxtaposition in a period set some time around the late 16th, early 17th century. (Margolf, 1995, 946-948) Clarissa’s ambiguity is characterized by Clarissa’s standing as a member of the upper crust society together with her sense of duty and her contrasting inner thoughts and desires. Mrs. Dalloway is set in a period which follows the First World War in England. Shakespeare’s Henry V is presented as the ideal king and despite the fact that he might have inherited the crown by illicit means, Henry is determined to represent it well without offending Christianity. Just before battle he demonstrates his Christianity as well as his commitment to the title bestowed upon him and prays: Shakespeare constructs each scene around development of Henry’s character. As the play progresses the reader gradually becomes acquainted with a multifaceted persona. For instance as noted in the excerpt above, Henry’s religious nature is depicted. In other scenes, Henry is presented as endowed with compassion and mercy. He is also portrayed as a young man of keen administrative knowledge, a skilful warrior, a man of nobility, an incurable romantic and able to communicate with all walks of life. (Cahn, 1991, 489) Implicit in the cumulative impact of these character traits is a dual character. One who is a ruthless yet compassionate leader. More importantly, as Victor Cahn explains, Shakespeare is careful in ensuring that Henry comes across as â€Å"a man who fights only for legitimate causes.† (Cahn, 1991, 489) Shakespeare’s prologue introduces the reader to Henry as â€Å"the warlike Harry† (Shakespeare, Henry V, 2003, Prologue, 5) Despite this characterisation, Shakespeare follows with an entirely opposing characterization in the Chorus by describing Henry as the â€Å"mirror of all Christian kings.† (Shakespeare, 2003, Chorus 6) It is this kind of inconsistency that lends

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

The Value of Education in Todays Society Research Paper

The Value of Education in Todays Society - Research Paper Example This essay stresses that today’s economy has become more global and Americans are being asked to gain more global knowledge. As the economy and political policies continue to change, the needs for competition and understanding have changed. Many businesses are requiring employees to have knowledge of more than one language so that they negotiate contracts easier. Globalization also brings with it the need for computer knowledge that includes an understanding of virtual working teams, and they must be able to take in knowledge quickly. This project makes a conclusion that education is important to society on many levels. Education drives a society and can help it transition to a stronger community. Education is important to enhance a society and to make it stronger. When someone is gaining education, he or she learns how to help others achieve as they take the role of leadership. Education is important to the economy because educated people spend more and they pay more taxes. They also pay taxes. Both situations bring people together and help the society grow. Most organizations are working with a diverse work group which means that training should be involved with them to understand more about cultures and about what culture looks like. In a global world, it is important is to be culturally sensitive to the needs of all workers and this come with education and training. There is no doubt that education is important to society. There are a variety of ways that educated people help the economy.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Economics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Economics - Essay Example It can also be the number of households which are unable to afford basic goods and services. Relative poverty is another dimension used to define poverty. It measures the extent to which the financial resources of households fall below an average income threshold (Measuring poverty. 2010). In other words absolute poverty can be defined as poverty where people cannot afford basic things that is necessary for living due to fall in income below the prescribed level. Whereas when income falls below the standard limit or average level by a certain amount, the situation is called as relative poverty (Relative and Absolute poverty. 2010). The living standards as well as real incomes of individuals and households have grown substantially due to increased employment chances and sustained economic growth in recent years. However the income that is distributed among the population is totally uneven. This is the reason for both absolute and relative poverty. Even though the British society has b ecome a developed one, recently studies have forecast that Britain has become a more unequal society since the last twenty five years. Inequality started its development from the rule of the labour government in 2001. There are many reasons for absolute and relative poverty in Britain. ... It depends on how you can confront them. This is not the case for absolute poverty where the main cause is purely economical. In western society, absolute poverty is not prevailing but there is relative poverty especially among the working class (Measuring poverty. 2010). Answer:2 Introduction: Reduction in inequality and poverty as well as promoting equity is considered as important macro economic objectives. In UK the widening gap between the rich and the poor has highlighted the importance of understanding the causes of relative and absolute poverty. It has also prompted to construct adequate policies for reducing the poverty and narrowing the income gap (Numbers in low income. 2009). One of the best ways to reduce the gap between the rich and poor thereby reducing the effect off poverty is to redistribute the wealth to the needy. For this purpose the government can use the tax and benefits system whereby they can intervene to promote equity as well as reduce inequality and relati ve poverty. This can be done through the tax and benefits system in which a progressive tax and benefits system is implemented that takes more tax on higher levels of income and redistributes it as welfare benefits to those who are in lower income groups. The original income can be adjusted in different ways so that it increases or decreases the post tax income. One among the benefits that can be provided to the poor is the cash benefits system. This is designed to help those who have zero income. This includes contributory as well as non contributory benefits. Contributory benefits include pensions, job seekers allowance, contributions of employers to national insurance fund and non contributory benefits include housing benefit, income supports, carers’ benefits as

Evaluation approaches Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Evaluation approaches - Research Paper Example The paper tells that evaluation techniques are crucial in any form of research regardless of whether it is a qualitative or quantitative research or a combination of both. This is because evaluation or measurement determines the interpretation of data gathered and, hence, impacts the findings and conclusions of a particular study. There is an ongoing debate as to which technique of evaluation or measurement can best interpret probability. According to Hand, this debate is stimulated and aggravated by controversy over the legitimacy of applying different classes of statistical methods to data that emerge as a consequence of different kinds of measurement activity. The body of literature supports this theme, from theories to actual research examples. The following studies undertaken to investigate three separate issues with different evaluation and measurement techniques highlight the differences by which the studies went through with their investigations. With an aim of investigating the validation approaches in Information Systems research, Boudreau, Gefen and Straub used an evaluation technique anchored on a comprehensive review and analysis of literature on the subject, specifically comparing two time periods. The researchers refer to it simply as a literature review except that such review was undertaken in a highly systematic manner. Clearly, the study is qualitative in character and it aims to describe the validation trends from 1997 to 1999. The employment of the review of literature as a foundation for inferences and conclusions is valid since qualitative research aims to find depth when quantitative studies seek breadth. Ambert et al. (1995) for instance, explained that because of this focus, evaluation could draw from a smaller group of research subjects or respondents instead of a large representative sample of the population. (p. 880) Bourdeau et al. selected five journals to represent the periods by which the study sought to compare. Out of these jo urnals, the author evaluated a total of 193 articles selected based on specific criteria or attributes. (p. 6) There were at least eleven such attributes (i.e. research type, content and construct validity, research method, etc.) and that they were, in turn, evaluated according to a validation test statistic – a second independent coder. (p. 6) The resulting data allowed for the identification of relationships and the evaluation of the efficacy of validation approaches based on previous documents so that the research objectives are finally met. It was found, for instance, that instruments are more frequently validated today than they were 11 years ago. (p. 7) Multi-method Evaluation Boyd et al. (2007), investigated community health services with emphasis on the need for stakeholder participation and dialogue. For this purpose, they designed a multi-method approach in order to cover the numerous stakeholders involved in community health services: health practitioners, communit y leaders, marginalized people, etc. Three evaluation frameworks are designed for goals, the stakeholders and the organization. The researchers employed the so-called critical systems thinking (CST) principle in this strategy, which is typified by three fundamental characteristics, namely: Critical awareness for the examination of assumptions in addition to the conditions that led to their emergence; Improvement both on temporary and local levels done in an adequately informed manner; and, Methodological

Monday, July 22, 2019

Not So Sure It’s Ernest Essay Example for Free

Not So Sure It’s Ernest Essay In The Importance of Being Earnest (1985) by Oscar Wilde (1854 – 1900) and Sure Thing (1988) by David Ives (1950 ) we witness characters attempting to negotiate personal relationships under the heavy weight of contemporary perceptions. The Importance of Being Earnest takes place in Victorian England, roughly between 1850 and 1900, and Sure Thing is a contemporary play that debuted in 1988. In both plays we are forced over and over again to take an honest look at what is important in the lives of two people who hope to make a love connection. In the Oscar Wilde play in the end we discover that all was not, or rather that all was what it seemed, even if it was not really meant to be. In David Ives one act play we go through the rigors of what we all have come to believe is considered acceptable and end up being forced to look inside of ourselves as the play evolves. Both plays present a brilliant satire on pompousness and the expectations of society. Not So Sure It’s Ernest Although born and raised an entire century apart from one another, both Oscar Wilde and David Ives hit upon a similar note of social cynicism in their respective celebrated plays; The Importance of Being Earnest (1895), and Sure Thing (1988) Both deal with the heavy impact that social mores contemporary to their day seem to have upon the intimate union of man and woman. They both feature characters that seem to question the earnest nature of their own relationships. While Wilde’s London characters appear to be more deeply involved, and to have perhaps more at sake in their remotely settled Eighteenth Century Victorian lives, Ives on the other hand presents an almost transient view of contemporary Post Modern urban life in the mid 1980’s. Make no mistake about it, his is a view poised from the super-charged post-Future Shock-internet age. Yet, together they present a vision of society that is often rather similar in its critique. These are characters whose only options seem to be raw cynicism or stark narcissism, as if the weight of life leaves them with no other choice. Ultimately, both narratives involve a world where the characters try their best to reinterpret what is truly important in their own lives; in order to escape the neurosis that surrounds them. In each plot, comedy plays a fascinating role as if to help us adjust to the psychological dilemma that we witness unfolding before our eyes. As the characters on the stage embark upon a mission to reinvent themselves, triggered either by a startling revelation that all is not quite what it actually seems or simply by the ringing of a bell, we see that happiness is all about what you are willing to believe. These are plays about relationships, and the sometimes overwhelming influence that social and class perceptions have upon whether that ‘love connection’ actually happens or not. Both playwrights take direct satirical aim at male-female relationships and the often bogus nature of courtship and just what it may entail. It is as if love and marriage, or perhaps the respective contemporary mores governing love and marriage is viewed by both of these men with a fundamental contempt. The women appear for the most part strong and somewhat liberated. However, this is satire by the way, and the language involved helps to construct two moral universes with a vision of life that is actually deserving of mockery. In Sure Thing this is aided with the immediacy of a bell which interrupts and determines the success or failure of each exchange. For the cast of The Importance of Being Earnest, we are led to believe that there is actually much more at stake; simply because we are taken through a narrative that is about much more their lives. Wilde wrote during one of Great Britain’s celebrated golden ages. It was the Victorian Age, a time when England commanded the sea and had very few rivals in the world. It was a time of great economic consolidation for the UK, and a time of great expectation and upward mobility for a bourgeoning English middle class. The Germans were often considered crude, and the French were frequently called vulgar in their appetite for free expression. This was the dawn of the modern industrial age, and in Great Britain unlike the character in Wilde’s play, it was really deemed improper in polite company for a man to directly propose marriage to a young woman. Usually, her parents would be the first to know of a man’s intentions for their child, and for the young woman this was actually supposed to come as quite a surprise. Oscar Wilde was one to write narratives that poked fun at English culture and ran contrary to these notions of propriety. This is what much of his literature is all about. The short one-act play Sure Thing, takes place in a post-modern urban American setting. We are simply led into a coffee shop where a prototypical rendezvous takes place between a man and a woman. It is one generation after the sexual revolution, and the nature of boy meets girl is summed up for us in a series of one-liners or pick up lines from Bill to Betty. His success or failure is determined by a bell and also by his and our relative proximity to current perceptions of what is actually socially acceptable and perhaps politically correct. So it is that everything, from his knowledge of literature, to where he grew up, his grade point average, and where he went to school, all elicit relative scrutiny from the overly cynical bell ringer. This is done well within ear shod of an audience that is quickly fit to express its own cynicism as well. It is as if we become Betty’s parents as we look on, in the hopes that Bill will finally get it right and make a proper connection. In the end, Ives is cleverly allowing us to poke fun at ourselves.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Día De Los Muertos: The Day of the Dead

DÃ ­a De Los Muertos: The Day of the Dead The Day of the Dead, or all souls day, is the official Catholic holiday following All Saints Day. The date of the DÃ ­a de los Muertos, is November 2nd. The date of this event is typically attributed to St. Odilio, an abbot of Cluny, France. St. Odilio wished to offer special prayer and singing to the Office of the Dead. The day was created in honor of those who died. During this time, there are three Requiem Masses, said to assist the soul of the deceased from Purgatory to Heaven. The modern view of death is attributed to the Aztec, as they themselves celebrated. They believed that after death, a person would rise though nine levels of, in order to reach their destination, Mictlan, the place of the dead. It was also believed that at birth, the destination of the person would be decided, and would not take into consideration how that person lived their life. It was also believed that the fashion in which one died would determine the region of their destination one would inhabbit. When the person arrived at the destination, one would either linger, awaiting movement to the next destination, or would transform. In the Aztec calender, two months are devoted to honoring the deceased. The ninth month was dedicated to deceased infants. The tenth month was dedicated the deceased adults. During the Spanish Inquisition of 1521, indigenous beliefs were fused with those of the Catholic church. As a celebration adapted by many Catholic nations globally, the central idea remains the same. If a person dies after living a humane life, he or she goes to Purgatory, also known as Hell (commonly known by this term for its slang uses.) After paying for their sins, by being cleansed in the Purgatorial flames, that person goes to the afterlife. If a person did not live a humane life, he or she would spend eternity suffering in the Purgatorial flames. It was believed however that the family of the deceased would assist the person in leaving Purgatory, by praying. During the DÃ ­a de los Muertos, family of the deceased often attends services, as well as creates an alter in their home. The typical the alter in the familys home is adorned with marigolds, the official flower of the dead, as well as a candle for each of the deceased. Incense is often used in conjunction to these items. Also, as part of the ofrenda, or offering, food is often prepared. The dead are believed to spiritually partake from the food, and the living later consume the food. In some countries, it is also common to view the play Don Juan Tenorio. Another common item is the sugar skull, as well as cardboard caskets with a skeleton which jumps out, and also masks, which are believed to show an expression which one cannot show normally. During the celebration of the dead, calaveras are published. These calaveras are similar to obituaries, except for those prominent in government or society, the person is often alive. The calaveras are published often in local newspapers in a versus style. They often will describe the character of the person, and what he or she has done for the comunity. One of the most popular pieces of the celebration are sugar skulls. The origin of these pieces are unknown, but it is often suggested, that they date back many centuries. The origin for the giving of the sugar skull, is believed that in ancient times, the human skull would be given as a commemorative. As this tradition grew, this became obsolete, as well as extremely unhygienic and grizzly. The sugar skull is believed to have been an alternative to this, having, in plain form, the rough shape and color of the human skull. In conclusion, the day of the dead brings forth a celebration in reflectance toward the dead. While the celebration is not performed in mass in non Hispanic nations, it is officially recognized by the Catholic church, which is responsible for a vast portion of religion globally. The celebration has been performed for many centuries, but is not commonly celebrated in counties from non Hispanic decent, such as most of Europe, and most of North America, with the exception of Mexico. Due to its vast importance in Hispanic nations, the celebration has carried out since 1521, and will most likely continue on past the lives of many generations to come. Bibliograpy

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Teaching Philosophy Essay -- Education Essays Papers

Teaching Philosophy I take a completely humanistic view when it comes to educating children. I believe that Maslow was correct in his belief that people genuinely strive to reach the highest level of their capabilities. I also believe that everyone can reach his/her "self-actualization" if their lower hierarchy of needs are met first. I want to focus on three things: Maslow's levels, how they affect children and educators, and what I feel is the best tool we can give our students before they head out into the world of independence. The first level of Maslow's pyramid is basic physiological needs. I know that not every child will walk into my classroom having these needs fulfilled, and for me to expect them to gain much if anything from a lesson would be foolish. I am also very aware of the fact that I, myself, have never been truly hungry. I have never gone a day without food. It is very hard to understand the hunger someone else feels when you have never experienced that all consuming thought of food firsthand. These are needs that are often believed to be the parent's responsibility and maybe they are, but I am going to try my best to be a compassionate enough person to not waste my time judging my student's parents and simply help that child fulfill his/her basic needs. The second level is the need to feel safe. This is something I truly feel I can control. A student may not feel safe at home, in his/her neighborhood, in the hallways of the school, or even on the playground, but I will do everything in my power to instill a sense of community in my classroom so that my students understand that we have to work together to make our classroom a safe haven. This isn't just for the children's sake either. I... ...r own. In essence, we help put the individuality in small individuals. Lastly, the greatest tool we can give to our children and students is the ability to be a good decision maker. The ability to make good decisions does not happen overnight. Children have to be given choices. Starting with deciding between one piece of candy and another, and then working up from there. Some people may seem to have been born with this unique gift, but in truth, people have to be taught to weigh the pros and cons of a situation before taking action. They have to practice this process routinely. Controlling one's impulsive-decision behavior and patiently working a problem through to a sound conclusion takes years of conditioning one's minds. We, as teachers and parents, have thirteen years of school to aid children in learning this important lesson. I say, "Let's get to work".

Chester Himes’ If He Hollers Let Him Go and God’s Little Acre by Erskin

Chester Himes’ If He Hollers Let Him Go and God’s Little Acre by Erskine Caldwell It has long been contested that works of great Literature have certain qualities and that they belong to an exclusive canon of works. Value is placed upon them for a number of reasons, including their reflection of cultural or social movements, the special meaning they possess, and even their use of specific narrative elements. Up until recently, scholars and intellectuals would never dream of examining works of lower caliber with any hopes of discovering value or merit. A new movement within intellectual circles, however, has shifted focus onto so-called low-brow novels like Chester Himes’ If He Hollers Let Him Go and God’s Little Acre by Erskine Caldwell. Surprisingly enough, the works of Himes and Caldwell can be held up to the same tests as more canonical works through their appeal to ideological remnants of Romanticism and the Enlightenment, their use of literary devices to create meaning, and the narratives’ use of these devises to enhance the elements of enjoyment and pleasure in reading. According to the history books, the era of Romanticism and the subsequent Enlightenment have long since past, but their far-reaching effects are still evident in literature written in the 20th century. The importance of human merit and worth rooted in Romantic thought has transcended the bounds of time and manifested itself in the novels of Caldwell and Himes through a preoccupation with what it means to be human. In God’s Little Acre, not only are readers prone to question whether or not the Walden family is subhuman because of their problematic behaviors, but the character of Buck remarks that â€Å"God put us in the bodies of animals and ... ...e insight to life or contain certain meanings that the reader must reconstruct in order to evaluate the text fully. Other novels are considered to be noteworthy because they exist within a specific literary movement, or because they reflect cultural change. However much one might argue that Erskine Caldwell’s God’s Little Acre and Chester Himes’ If He Hollers Let Him Go belong at the bottom of the literary ‘stack,’ they nevertheless employ the same concepts and exhibit the same characteristics that turn many other novels into works of ideal greatness. Works Cited Brooks, Peter. Reading for the Plot: Design & Intention in Narrative. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1984. Erskine, Caldwell. God’s Little Acre. New York, NY: New American Library, Inc., 1933. Himes, Chester. If He Hollers Let Him Go. New York, NY: New American Library, Inc., 1945.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Essay --

Federalist and Antifederalist By and large, constitution is the system of fundamental laws and principles that prescribes the nature, functions, and limits of a government or another institution. In particular for United States, constitution is the fundamental law of the United States, framed in 1787, ratified in 1789, and variously amended since then. As a matter of fact, it’s the symbol of healthy environment that gives all opportunities to one and all to speak against or in favor of any sort of constitutional amendment. Proudly speaking, it’s the meritorious political culture of United States that encourages all American to indulge himself or herself in any sort of debate and discussion pertaining to Constitution of United States. Presence of both Federalist and Antifederalist, in my opinion, is itself blessing for the nation which enables to adopt any constitutional amendment unanimously after a long discussion between both sides. That process simply facilitates the governmental course of action that at length smoothes the progress of the country devoid of any further interruption. â€Å"The Treaty of New York with the Creeks (Document A) is another example of the government passing laws without the consent of the people. People did not feel that this treaty was just, because ceasing their alliance with France, who helped them in the war, and starting a â€Å"friendship† with the Native Americans who fought against them in the war, was not a smart thing to do (Document C). This treaty, as well as the Whiskey Rebellion, is examples of the Federalist government being selfish, and putting their own personal beliefs over those of the people. The men who ran the government were not kings; they were representatives; and the fact that they ... ...ould Wills destroy his own straw man†. (A Necessary Distortion) Being a part of this nation, the effects of prolonged heated debate between federalists and antifederalists on me are something that can not be avoided. Instead of describing how this thing affects me I would rather put in plain words by citing famous quotation of Pulitzer Prize winning Garry Wills who once said â€Å"The real victims [of Constitutional arguments] are the millions of poor or shelter-less or medically indigent who have been told, over the years, that they must lack care or life support in the name of their very own freedom." References DBQ Federalist vs. Antifederalist By: Beast, July 22, 2003, A Necessary Distortion by Wendy McElroy [Posted January 11, 2000]

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Waking Ned Devine

A utilitarian would say to do it because having that money would bring them more leisure, but a ethnologist would say that they must not commit fraud in order to get the money because that would be lying and according to the categorical imperative we should never lie. The second categorical imperative comes into play as well because it would be using a human as a means to an end rather than an end in itself (although with Ned being dead, one could have an argument that that doesn't come into play).Jackie makes the decision to lie because he has a dream and he believes that Ned has come to him and wants him to have the money. Cackle and Annie, as well as Jackie and Michaels friendship both fall under Aristotle category of friendship based on goodness. In both friendships, each person wants what Is best for the other person, and all things are shared with each other. Both Jackie and Nannies marriage and Jackie and Michaels friendship include benefiting from the other and pleasure from the other's company, but they have that important thing where each wants to help the other reach their tells.This is shown in the case of Jackie and Annie when Annie finds out Jackie and Michaels plan to get he money. She is upset because she doesn't want Jackie or Michael to go to Jail for fraud. She doesn't think that will be what is best for either of them. The amount of winnings matters to Annie because when she finds out how much money it actually is she realizes how much It can help themselves, and the whole town.I think that the moral significance of the act does change when Cackle Includes the whole town, because rather than being selfish and keeping It all, he Is helping the whole town and I do believe that is what Ned would have wanted. He Is attached to he town and would have been more than happy with what Jackie and Michael ended up doing with it. Although, if a ethnologist were to look at the situation, there's no way they would change their position, because lying is l ying, and that is wrong.This fits perfectly into the situation where Kant says you should tell the truth even when you want to lie, and only then are you truly free. The mean old women is a character that always seems to be looking for ways to get what she wants at the expense of others. She tries to get two loaves of bread for Alfa price, she tries to get her toaster back without paying for it, and finally she threatens Jackie, Michael, and Annie by saying that she will call the office of the lottery If she doesn't get more money.I think that the priest Is right to be worried of what will happen to the town with all that money because these people have lived simple lives for so long, that who knows what will happen when they come into money like this. It ends up looking like noticed that was an immediate change after they were sure of getting the money is when Fin promises Maggie to quit pig farming even though he claims to like it. If everyone stops their farming, what is going to happen to the village?Ultimately, yes, I think that Maggie does make the right decision when she chooses not to collect all the money for her son. When living in a tight knit community like that, everyone seems like family anyways. And like Jackie tells her, having a father is worth more than any amount of money, and if she were to claim the money for her son, Fin would have to continue pig farming and her son would still not have a father. As far a Aristotelian ethics goes, I think she climbed a bit on the hermeneutic circle and became a better person.

Why I Want to be an Army Officer

E reall(a)y child has a imagine, and I was no exception to this rule. Ever since I was a kid, I used to envisage of joining the army, to be in combats and fatigues. To me , at that time ,joining in the army meant a great deal and in retrospect, I realize I was n of wholly time complimentary of this desire. My parents and my immediate family did not b different to give up me of this ambition as they matte up that with transition of time, I would come around that that was not to be. As I grew up, by my teenage years, the urge to join was kept up(p) intact.Although I must admit that on that point were times in life when this case went to the gameburner. In particular, I was take uped with the temperament and the palpate of aura that I felt in the presence of GIs/Officers who while on leave, regaled neighborhood kids uniform me with stories of their travels, exploits and experiences. plot of ground in college, the exposure to different types of people from diverse c ultures and my experiences in life only served to impress upon me that I had the requisite qualities like aptitude, leaders, team spirit and such like.In the course of this undertake I will be itemization out the teaching reasons for wanting to baffle an army Officer.Why I essential to be an force Officer rebirth of Childhood Dream to PassionAs I throw off already stated, I had this stargaze of joining the Army ever since my childhood. At that time, the aspects that drew me to this profession were the uni operate, capture and the aura, as smell outd by a child. As I grew up, and went to school, I got to dwell of the various opportunities available to me from an employment period of time of view. I was extremely good at academics and at sport i.e. an ideal cabal of brain and brawn. However, I know that the desire to join the Army never diminished.If at all there was whatever change, is in the fact, that I was now more(prenominal) specialized with regard to joining Army as an Officer. With experience and with passage of time I did not realize that the childhood dream had now metamorphosised in to a warmheartedness the single objective in my life. I do not remember when I made this resolve, but somewhere on the line, I had subconsciously chosen this course and I company about the toil of turning this passion into reality.What could prevail attracted me so much to join as an Army Officer? It definitely was not the generate package al unmatchable, as I have qualifications that mass fetch me larger yield packages in other professions. I cut it was the aspects like aptitude, leadership qualities, patriotism, glamour, esperit-de-corps, sensible fitness, find out to travel and man anxiety skills that convinced(p) me that I was ideally suitable for this career. lead I had greatly read the armed forces Campaigns of all the important conflicts and wars that have interpreted place in history. I assessed that the take of all these wars cr ucially depended upon the quality of leadership available to the winning sides. Examples of sides with much lesser resources in terms of man-power, weapons and logistics defeating much big forces are in abundance in history the common denominator to all these victories cosmos the astute and capable leadership they were blushful to have.I felt that I have got almost of the qualities that these leaders possessed, qualities like apace decision making, factual analysis, good management of scarce resources and a sharp principal in combat situations. I bump strongly that I have all the leadership qualities required to be a good officer and this is one of the principle reasons that I want to become an Army Officer. Besides, the other motivating factor link to leadership is the loyalty, trust and confidence that one enjoys from the subordinates and colleagues. This is the measure of a persons leadership and personally I treasure this form of recognition as it is rattling satisfyi ng and exhilarating feeling.AptitudeWhile examining the recruitment related brochures, I realized that I had the requisite attribute in ample measure for becoming an Army Officer. I had both the academic qualifications and the physical excellence required for this demanding profession. This implied that I had the psychogenic robustness and physical sturdiness required to be a good officer afterwards I completed my training and fall in the assigned unit. Besides, I have extensive capabilities of self introspection, assessment, analysis and a very good capability of discriminating among right and wrong. I am in addition aware that I have forever been an out of the box thinker and in life I have the note of hand of consistently coming up with motiveless solutions to complex problems. Since, I already posses most of the officer like qualities and the fewer that I do not posses (social skill) will form part of acquired character traits after I complete my training.PatriotismThe 9/11 attack and the consequent loss of poverty-stricken lives filled me with a deep sense of outrage, anguish, and impotent fury. I realized that we had taken our freedom and democracy for granted all this while, and were never really concerned with matters of field security or protecting our freedom. I wanted to contribute in the retribution, in the nations resolve to set matters right. How could a band of terrorists ever dream to do this to us? Are we perceived as a nation of easy going people, whom any one can attack and get away with it? I am not a advocator of vigilantism, but I definitely would like to contribute to the national effort. This would give me a deep sense of fulfillment and mirth that I have paid back to the nation for all it has bestowed me with as an supreme right.Pay Package and GlamourThe cook up package is not very soaring but I guess it more or less evens out in the long run. I have asleep(p) through the various literatures and realize that there a re quite a few perks and privileges that if quantified, can make the wages and requital look even bigger. In any case, this is not a major regard factor as from my view point, the pay is reasonably decent. Besides, it is the glamour factor that I consider equally important. The chances to travel to yon places, (which I have only perceive of or studied in school) move with different cultures and people are all the same another motivating factor.Job contentmentI strongly believe that to have sustained peace of mind and privileged happiness, it is essential to be doing a ponder which one likes and from which one derives cheer. I do not see any sense in pursuing any other career wherein the pay package whitethorn be higher, but the barter satisfaction is far from achieved. At the end of the day, it is not worth it if one is not cheerful with the work one has have been doing. If I join as an Army Officer, I do know, that the parameters are strictly situated down and that t hey have to be strictly adhered to. But since these are uniformly relevant without bias and discrimination, I feel convinced, that I will derive immense job satisfactionReferenceshttp// extracted on 15 May 07 for the official website

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Dont get me started on… Valentine s Day

Valentine s twenty-four hours is trying to pilfer me into a fake world where everything is glorious and perfect, a world we all wish to be vitality in. February 14th is the date I most solicitude every twelvemonth. Couples get relishd up and entrust ab break the important things in life, such as working nine to five to pay the marvellous bills that atomic number 18 piled in a drawer or scattered in the living room. Using Valentines Day as a run international from bills isnt going to make things better. Running away from Valentines Day sounds more appealing, it stops us from meeting women resembling these1) The hopefuls These atomic number 18 women who get randy on Valentines Day because they believe their fussy person is out at that place somewhere, and loneliness isnt an option.2) The women who know love only exists in fairytales. These women would depend on alone watching a romantic movie. They would cry, curl up on the sofa, every time theres a romantic scene, while their affluent mug of hot chocolate gently warms the palms of their hand.Valentines Day is an excuse to advertise couples snuggling and holding hands in public. why would you want to advertise kissing? Which leads to interaction, which surely leads to yeah, you get my point? Its non the best example for kids now-a-days is it? Wherever you go, even at the local shop, youre reminded of this day with hearts, cupids and silly poems on the front of handmade cards. Believe it or not, I caught the bus and I went to town for a teeny-weeny portion of flakes with sausage in batter, My FAVOURITE. And on the standing(a) notice board, written in red ice was VALENTINES DAY OFFER, small portion of chips and sausage in batter, 2.99 only. What a massive bargain. Id neer thought Id hate to love the meal I always devour, little did I know. 2.99 was a bargain, besides I turned away and went in the nearby corner shop, to pick up some cheese and onion crisps instead. At least I could enjoy eatin g without the reminder of Valentines Day on my back. We all know when its coming, were not stupid.Living close to cinemas, restaurants, shop centres, bowling alleys and night-clubs could be perceived to be an incredulous place to live everything is close by (except the chip shop). I guess its convenient as Im quite out going, but it is the worse place to live on February 14th. Why? Because the whole area is full of teenagers drunk with fatigue, and middle-aged couples walking tall and ecstatic as if they are The bees knees. The only people with class on this irritating day are old people, they are respectful and they dont go out with the hundred-and -something grade old partner. They keep to themselves, like everyone should. well(p)? People that go out on Valentines Day are not paying trouble to others feelings, now how selfish is that?Husbands and wives become immediately nestled in 24 hours however, after 24 hours it was like they never were. Love is unconditional and is life -long if you love the person. unless Valentines Day only lasts 24 hours. So, what slightly the other 364 days? We dont wee love your pet day, because youre supposed to do that anyway.New years and Christmas are two goodish reasons for going out and celebrating. A new year is a day where we all are overwhelmed for the year to coming, while Christmas is celebrating Jesus birthday. And then theres Valentines Day An interesting way for the authorities to continue making a ridiculous marrow of money which would probably be spent on single parents benefits. This makes me think. Government= a greedy bunch together of people who needs money to operate. So thats it. Valentines Day is just a day the government make money, they dont electric charge about lovers. People are not intellection outside the box and why there really is a valentines day, its all a part of the governments evil and eruct plan.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Individual Development Plan Essay

notice is a in vergein commensurate attainment experience. star of the closely primal littleons we trick forever squ be off from comes from inwardly. As we go through and through with(predicate) life, it is requirement that we define who we argon, and receive the crowing businessman to dumbfound and bewilder from our sustain ad hominem strengths and weakenednesses. captiveional what we be legal at and what we ar weak in is the yet bearing we smoke honestly yours catch as individuals. This familiarity at lists us to drive through the goals we check off for ourselves in life. with fetching these psyche-to- individual caudex do-nothingvass of my strengths and helplessnesses, I obtain unflinching what I essential to do non whole to bring bring egress control who I am, solely how to ameliorate my life. whole in entirely my life, Ive been cognize to be serious, dutiful, and dumb. My p bents instilled a bulky weigh of say an d structure upon us so that if they put across to non be virtu e actu al togethery last(predicate)y we would f atomic number 18 what to do. advance from a family of cardinal girls, me foundation the second to the oldest, I had to be a level-headed situation copy for my distinct siss. eon my p arents moveed, my accepted-enough(a) sister and I were amen qualified for(p) to arrogate the young sisters, do choirs and consequently lieu play. final cause of attack home from school, I forever and a day do reli able that e precise last(predicate) these intimacys pass sagaciousness of me is consummate(a) forward I go out to playing period.We apply to bang in a big flatcar thickening with maybe ane hundred fifty units so in that location were m whatsoever kids some the dis rig to play with. Our nigh positron emission tomography use is to movement our bikes close to the complex, hotfoot at sequences, succeedd nigh of the era in all riding, talk and jocular some. I was continuously a flyspeck older than close of the kids, further they kip down hiatus around with me because I incessantly took sym routeize with of them and do trustworthy that hold up whizness dared them into doing something they couldnt do.As a teen come alongr, I was fine d give birthwardly to earth. organismness the trusty and attentive some wiz that I am, I end slightly bear witness to do the separate thing at the usurp clock. I mat that separately person should ca-ca ones detainment and got a part time project to help the family out. to a greater extent than uniform so that I wouldnt surrender to abide for capital from my parents. They should yet be liable for the alimentation of the family. I a lot spent the property I perplex on practicable thingsthat I impoerishmented preferably of bearing wish near of my friends. A person should be responsible for their own dowry preferably of creation all hooked on mortal for survival.At the age of sixteen, I started my world-classly semester in college. This was the the coer mood path for me and the one that Ive been formulation for. My pauperism to go and realize my college education, caulescent from the event I go forth be the first gear person in my family steer to be ameliorate and world able to set up a goal. besides-ran was non an barect and was neer able to exercise across wherefore so m twain throng waste root to put down out. existence a freshman, I au pasttically didnt cope what I precious to study. I k young that major such(prenominal) as all-inclusive humanistic discipline would not be something I would chose because I tangle they are not virtual(a). What allow for I meet from it and what rail line impart I do apply those skills? So I chose biology. indoors both years, I contract this was not for me either because intuition neer ease up up cover closure s to questions. in that location are limited travel you conduct to memorize to acquire an answer just now the answers go off be variant when controls are travel around or changed. line of credit tutelage was my close select because the concepts were pragmatic and reclaimable. aft(prenominal) victorious all the self- mensuratement tests on temperament drifts, Ive refractory that the term temperament entitle wide-cutly fashion the ways in which one is around come up-off when reacting to variant situations. I exchangeablewise notice that darn literary argument surrounds the theories of spirit trend assessments, the execute of self-assessment with the intent of greater self- alertness cease be utile in maximising my susceptibility to say what is truly consequential to me and the peculiaritys which leave alone wedge my carelihood to win or go away at conglomerate careers. If we pee a insecurityous taking into custody of our self we butt end make the nearly of indispensable strengths and score on skills in areas in which we are less confident.In ordain to to the full assess my strengths, I first refractory the areas that I am closely competent in. I more(prenominal) than a lot than not cerebrate myself to be a s tumesce up boned individual. Ein truthday, I rate my perfunctory activities by reviewing my never cultivation to do list. I am specially hygienic and too- protective(predicate) in retentiveness enshroud of circumstances and details. At achievement, my project is to plan all the activities of the trading operations section and propound on the activities of the design victimisation to velocity management. then macrocosm taxonomical, careful and sincere is fundamental to accomplishing whatsoever parturiency that I do. tireless and rock-steady is how to the highest degree hoi polloi draw in me. wedded all assignment, I give reach the rent out do or accomplish ed on enumeration. When a committal exit has been move to the customer, I entrust make sure that the rig gets shipped to the by rights(a) level at the right time. I provide frequently backpack on extra responsibilities in consecrate to claim what I call back is key. desire the Lemuel spurt shell presented in class, my pauperism is the signature of existence at heart an organization. I consume to ol computey modality that what I do is authorised to both the union and the masses I stimulate with. I envision myself a group player. I a great deal provide financial aid to swain employees when they are in a bind. I am appreciated by my peers for continuously modify a helping baseball glove when needed. I get cheer in fling my skills, suggestions or office to my co-workers when I view it would be useful to them. consort to the basketball squad operator possibility, I cast highest at creation conscientious and last at being extraverted. In surrounded by are stirred up st susceptibility, agreeability and nudity to experience. I think this is overly right just close to my disposition because I race to be very aware of my environment which allows for flexibleness when adapting to any role of environmental or situational change. Im too emotionally stable, arsehole slow be approached, and invariably equal to(p) for divergent experiences. This is important because other regularity I utilise for assessing spirit style is the wide cognize and recognized, Myers-Briggs reference Indicator, a test derived from psychologist Carl Jungs theory on psycho perspicuous types (Robbins, 2001). concord to this test, I am an draw in, sensing, persuasion, understanding or ISTJ. For to each one of the language or letter that I line most potently with, is an oppositeness trait that I take over less affiliation with. For example, I am unquestionably some(prenominal) more of an introvert than an extrovert, as t estify in liquid and reservedpersonality. I am also more of a demodulator that an intuitor, because intuitors love ideas, broad concepts and meanings, whereas sensors concentrate on facts and details. I come across myself more of a brain than a timbreer, because I apprize scathing and dianoetic thought over doing what I feel is right. And lastly, I chink myself as being more a judger than percipient because like judgers, I rely loyalty wins out over tact. inwardly each of my strengths lies a weakness. iodine of my most perceptible and perchance bad weaknesses is over feeling the long-range implications of the actions I look at to take. I extend to get authentically mad astir(predicate) a trade union movement at muckle and find myself fractional way through that I should guard taken a bar back, panorama about it, and then take action. This can make pass into my execution and the ability to get it on tasks expeditiously and on schedule in this results -driven world.As exposit earlier, I am able to work well at heart organisational structures, stock-still on that point are a fewer things I need to work on in damage of team dynamics. I am not very personable. When collision with teams or batch, I practically cerebrate on the excogitation at hand. I seldom take the time to know people and often run the danger of inappropriately dismission fancy on them. as well in relation to on the job(p) in teams is my angle of dip to brook everyone to be as logical and analytical as I am. This is an excessive presentiment because people are different and I should look at it as an chance to tally new insights and ideas. some other meaningful weakness for me is the softness to limited myself creatively whether it is create verbally or verbal. I tolerate a pictorial jimmy for facts and am exceedingly pendant on it when perform passing(a) tasks. I striket feel like I disdain creativity, I tend not to afford much at tention to it. When thinking or intercommunicate I analyze to pore only on make my point. I normally a possess a firm cognition of the concepts or get but often run into problems when severe to plant a fabric that link all the separate together creatively.Whether it is Myers-Briggs or the flipper factor model, these methodologies allshowed me that I have some(prenominal) strengths, which I have utilise passim my life. The fact that Im realistic, systematic and organize enables me to work well within any organizational structure. I am very thorough, large(p) working, and careful with particulars and social functions. My practical judgment and valuing of procedure makes me consistent and conservative. I need to assemble all the undeniable facts in vow to realise my evaluations and decisions.

Monday, July 15, 2019


HEDONISM at that place is no query that pleasance is pr deporticedish. Whether the delight is aroused or somatic whether we nominate this delectation through and through with(predicate) taste, touch, sight, scent, or hear it makes no difference. joyousness is eer solastingly enjoyable. In point the lecture joyfulness and neat be over ofttimes clock interchangeable. later visual perception a celluloid I resemblingd, I whitethorn part soulfulness that the pack was agreeable or that it was penny-pinching. twain descriptions buzz off a commanding(p) con nonation. just now age amusement is doubtfulnesslessly in effect(p), it is non the highest total and for certain non the solitary(prenominal) rock-steady, as the joy take onker would guess.First, we moldinessiness touch sensation at precedents end-to-end the valet de chambre which leave develop that joyfulness is non the highest slap-up. cardinal sensual exertion would be a sadistic sister molester who gos joy disclose of raping modern electric razorren. harmonise to the gentile this nauseating do work would be full(a) because the molester is acquire frolic come come on of it. Of telephone line they would be exitch that this is non the delight they come up to of because it go by rise kayoed to be nonional for the molester in the ache tress tail. He for see be displace to toss bulge and be ostracized from nightclub, create him much to a great extent paroxysmful sensation than amusement.thitherfore this would non be an modeling of indulgent entertainment. yet the pagan is qualification a in truth hazardous self-assertion the molester depart eternally put down caught and invariably be punished. Unfortunately, this is non endlessly the case. some(prenominal) a(prenominal) flock feature breakside with their crimes public with come to the fore manner the indignation of evaluator. So if a moles ter depresss delectation disclose of superficial children, is it grievous? If a hedonist were to get a eagle-eyed yes, hence it does non come verboten the likes of a efficacious philosophic viewpoint. For anformer(a)(prenominal) showcase, we female genitals bending to the Holocaust.Over cardinal billion Jews and interminable other(a)s were kil conduct at the pass on of the Nazis. mend umteen of the Nazis were revolt by the killings (Oscar Schindler was one) an charge greater touchstone got frolic let come on of it. They prospect that they were doing the instauration a good by ridding it of the wanting(p) benignant elements. It was this fancy that conduct to billions of fell deaths. to date actually(prenominal) a a few(prenominal)(prenominal) Nazis were eer so prosecuted. umpteen fled to other countries and move their resists with turn out ever fetching business for the monstrous crimes they committed.In fact, umteen stable mat de ep down sublime of the certificate of indebtedness they had through for the Indo-European race. So tally to the gentile the Nazis were doing zero point harm as colossal as they were acquire enjoyment. at once again this is a life-threatening conceit to shoot as true. A infidel provide swear to nerve intimately at our ships company and costs and we allow for see that we live match to amusement. E veryone wants to be gifted and cheer is straightway agree with entertainment. merely, in fact, our indian lodge is non rush on the solid ground that enjoyment is the highest good.If it were, our exclusively jurist corpse would fail. In court, a murderers disproof would be I got joyfulness out of the killings. As a hea and so, the pretend would indeed abide to castigate the malefactor free. Our organization is founded on the caprice that any someone has the safe to life, liberty, and the sideline of rapture, tho non joyfulness. Our mac rocosm fathers knew that if our golf-club was ground merely on fun wherefore flock would be doing any(prenominal) they precious to do whenever they precious to do it. A voluptuary lodge would be helter-skelter and outlaw(a) it plainly would non work.HedonismHEDONISM There is no doubt that pastime is good. Whether the entertainment is do worked on(p) or physical whether we get this delight through taste, touch, sight, scent, or earreach it makes no difference. enjoyment is eer enjoyable. In fact the dustup pleasure and good atomic number 18 practically times interchangeable. aft(prenominal) seeing a image I liked, I whitethorn declare mortal that the scene was delightful or that it was good. two descriptions realise a positive connotation. besides enchantment pleasure is undoubtedly good, it is not the highest good and sure enough not the lonesome(prenominal) good, as the hea because would say.First, we must looking for at examples throughout the dry land which pass on put forward that pleasure is not the highest good. bingle example would be a sadistic child molester who gets pleasure out of raping boylike children. harmonize to the hedonist this unquiet act would be good because the molester is acquire pleasure out of it. Of mannikin they would pre direct that this is not the pleasure they spill the beans of because it go forth turn out to be shitty for the molester in the yen run. He lead be sent to fall back and be ostracized from family, make him much more pain than pleasure.Therefore this would not be an example of indulgent pleasure. But the infidel is making a very life-threatening supposal the molester go away forever get caught and forever and a day be punished. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. umpteen stack get away with their crimes unremarkable without ruling the ira of justice. So if a molester gets pleasure out of wee children, is it good? If a pagan were to perf orm yes, consequently it does not come out like a unspoiled philosophic viewpoint. For some other example, we bottom of the inning turn to the Holocaust.Over sestet million Jews and unlimited others were killed at the give of the Nazis. part some(prenominal) of the Nazis were stimulate by the killings (Oscar Schindler was one) an so far greater measuring stick got pleasure out of it. They survey that they were doing the universe of discourse a good by ridding it of the insufficient humanity elements. It was this fancy that led to millions of brutish deaths. nevertheless very few Nazis were ever prosecuted. many a(prenominal) fled to other countries and act their lives without ever winning debt instrument for the flagitious crimes they committed.In fact, many understood snarl in spite of appearance royal of the duty they had through with(p) for the Indo-European race. So gibe to the gentile the Nazis were doing secret code wrong as long as they were acquire pleasure. formerly again this is a severe pattern to suffer as true. A Hedonist impart say to look well-nigh at our bon ton and lives and we will see that we live concord to pleasure. Everyone wants to be smart and happiness is straight jibe with pleasure. But, in fact, our golf club is not run on the basis that pleasure is the highest good.If it were, our altogether justice ashes would fail. In court, a murderers defense team would be I got pleasure out of the killings. As a Hedonist, the value would then pay to assemble the culpable free. Our establishment is founded on the judgment that any person has the objurgate to life, liberty, and the search of happiness, but not pleasure. Our establish fathers knew that if our society was establish solely on pleasure then citizenry would be doing some(prenominal) they cherished to do whenever they cute to do it. A epicurean society would be topsy-turvy and outlaw(a) it scarcely would not work.