Saturday, August 31, 2019
Introduction: Sea World is a place for people to get a splash of happiness and amusement watching whales do intricate tricks but is the fact that the Orcas are held in captivity and unhappy worth that splash of amusment. The case of Ã¢â¬Å"BlackfishÃ¢â¬ deals with the captivity of Orca Whales in Sea World and the bill being put up in California to ban the captivity and breeding of Orcas called the California Captive Orca Welfare and Safety Act (Sanchez, 2014). A documentary produced by Magnolia Films about the Ã¢â¬Å"BlackfishÃ¢â¬ case and the danger of Orcas being in captivity lead to a menacing effect on the image of Sea World. Description: In 2010, a trainer who worked for Sea World, Dawn Brancheau was killed by one of the show whales in Sea World [Tilikum] which set off this controversy and the realization that Orcas should not be kept in captivity (Zurko, 2014). In the documentary Ã¢â¬Å"BlackfishÃ¢â¬ that was released in July of 2013, it expresses that when Orcas are h eld in detention and bred within such confinement they grow unhappy and aggressive. Orcas are used to living in open waters and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s where they are happiest, being so detained makes them unhappy to the point where they get aggressive towards those trainers who they know have a part in keeping them imprisoned. They lash out towards the trainers, not because they are dangerous creatures, because they are desperate for a normal healthy life back in the open waters. Because Tili attacked Brancheau, it lead to the beliefs that the title of killer whales was a literal title, when in reality their anger is due to the face they are in captive in the park. Animals are adapted to the environment they were intended, Orcas are used to living free in open waters being able to communicate with other animals in the ocean (Sanchez, 2014). The captivity of the orcas has shortened their lifespan because they are unable to live the way that they should. Interpretation: The image of Sea World has been totally turned around since the Ã¢â¬Å"BlackfishÃ¢â¬ case has escalated into the media forming a new image for the company. Identity is when a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reality is exposed through evidence, such as the services they provide, from the company, whereas image is a tangent of identity where it is the refl ection of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s identity. InÃ relation to Ã¢â¬Å"BlackfishÃ¢â¬ the way the trainers and the company of Sea World treat the orcas has been exposed to the public altering the image of the company. Sea World used to be viewed as a place for families to go and enjoy watching trained Orcas do awesome tricks and entertain their audiences, where now it is seen as a place where animals are mistreated and held captive. Evaluation: This captivity is a huge controversy building up to protests against Sea World and leading to the bill put up by California to ban the act of keeping Orcas that were caught from the wild and keep them in captivity. Though there are Sea Worlds in Texas and Florida, the bill will immediately affect the California Sea World (Rohenkohl, 2014). If the bill were to pass, California would have to find a new way to entertain their guests or breed orcas that are not wildly caught (Martinez, 2014). The documentary, Ã¢â¬Å"BlackfishÃ¢â¬ caused much controversy and threatened the image of the Sea World Company. Conclusion: It would make a person wonder, if Brancheau was not attacked, would the true identity of Sea World been exposed? The image of Sea World being a happy escape has been reformed due to the fact that OrcaÃ¢â¬â¢s being detained was proven to be a problem and a danger to not only to the trainers, but to the Orcas themselves. Orcas deserve to live in the open waters, free, and live the life span they are intended and not be confined within the tiny pools of Sea World. California may be the first to make a difference in OrcaÃ¢â¬â¢s lives, now the rest of the world can be a part of the change. Annotation of Information Sources Martinez, Michael. (2014, March 8). Seaworld Ã¢â¬ËBlackfishÃ¢â¬â¢ backlash: Richard Bloom calls for banning orca shows. Retrieved from http://www.wptv.com/news/state/seaworld-blackfish-backlash-richard-bloom-calls-for-banning-orca-shows
Friday, August 30, 2019
Develop or select the instruments your team will use to collect data. Describe how you will sample the population: Ã · What is the appropriate sampling method? Ã · What sampling frame will be used? Ã · What is the appropriate sampling size? Ã · How will the sample size be determined? Discuss the overall data analysis approach and result reporting: Ã · Which statistical test will be used and why? Ã · How will the results be displayed? Combine the three parts of the Preparing to Conduct Business Research assignment to develop a cohesive research proposal of no more than 2,450 words. Ã Include the following elements: Ã · Research problem and purpose Ã · Significance, scope, magnitude, and feasibility of finding a solution to the issue, opportunity, or problem Ã · Research question, hypothesis, and variables Ã · Research design Ã · Instrument you developed or selected Ã · Sampling method Ã · Overall data analysis approach Ã · Result reporting Ã · Ethical considerations
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Q1: The major explanations to the reason why AOL was so successful in the commercial online industry comparing to its competitors CompuServe and Prodigy are as follows: Ã · AOL offered the unique and board range of features such as Online Community, Computing and the like, so their services are relatively differentiated Ã · AOL kept good relation with its customer because of the easy access to AOLÃ¢â¬â¢s online service which only required to have a personal computer, a telephone line, and a computer, and also reflected in AOLÃ¢â¬â¢s rate structure which was the easiest for consumers to understand and anticipate, relative to its competitors Ã · The bargaining power of AOL with supplier is achieved by making strategic partnership with American Express, and so on; and completing its acquisitions of Internet software developers, along with AOLÃ¢â¬â¢s growing membership base, in order to strengthen its new interactive services industry by means of pursuing a number of initiatives . Ã · The threat of new enchant is low, since there is not much service providers, like AOL, acted as middlemen between thousands of content providers and millions of customers, which provided lucrative profits prior to 1995. Q2: There are several crucial changes happened in the commercial online industry in the year of 1995 and after: Ã · With the advent of the Internet World Wide Web and the entrance of Microsoft Network, content providers had substitution distribution channels that offered greater control over their products Ã · Under the background that the migration of proprietary services and content to Web sites, the exclusive offerings of AOL was declining, thus it was likely reduce the market share of AOL in the industry and subsequently posed negative effect on its profitability Ã · Since everyone with a PC was his/her own publisher, customers would sign up for an Internet on-ramp service provided by other companies and they were tend to use the other companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ browsing software to surf the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s database, resulted in the situation that content providers were starting to make use of these distribution channels. Q3. Based on the annual reports and footnotes, AOLÃ¢â¬â¢s accounting policy was to capitalize subscriber acquisition costs prior to 1995, which in my view, was not likely to be justified in that period based, for the uncertainty whether ts customers could migrate to the internet still remained since this would probably affect the growth in its subscriber and the profit of its services, although the CFO of AOL attributed the choice to the explanation that the period over which the revenue would be received was matching with the timing the expense, yet there was a rising gap between the reported income and its tax income, except for a big change in its service quality, these two numbers bear a consistent relationship to each other. Q4. The company should shorten the length of amortisation of the acquisition costs instead of extending it. The reason of this assertion are based on the life cycle of the industry which was supposed to be relatively short and because of the constantly cha nging environment of the commercial online industry with huge uncertainties, which was likely to require conservative accounting policy to reflect the financial figures so as to better match revenues with expense. Nevertheless, AOL even extended the amortization period for its subscriber acquisition cost from about 15 months to 24 months, which made it would be tend to face big risks when customers switched to other online service under uncertainty. Therefore, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s response seems to be inconsistent with my view. Q5. If AOL followed the policy of expensing subscriber acquisition outlays rather than capitalizing them, there would be a huge amount of subscriber acquisition costs, leading to a comparatively decreasing profit and increase operating loss in the income statement as well as lower equity in the balance sheet for the last same period or compared to its peers, which might lose the attractive looking of the accounting figures when it was eager to raise money from the public market so as to pay its bill.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Structural steel design - Literature review Example When restoration was completed, the new skeleton had to be hoisted on to supports. These were composed of steel compression struts that are hollow, with a capacity of 50 tons. They were coupled to node points found at the end of each of the cradle frames where they stuck out through the hull. The external supportÃ¢â¬â¢s lower ends were linked to plates cast into the dry dockÃ¢â¬â¢s steps. Since the steps had started crumbling, they had to be dug out and reinforced with grouted steel piles before connecting supports and lifting the ship. A series of arms offered lateral wind load restraint. The arms were bolted to strengthened concrete tension piles at the top of the dry dock (Douglas 2012, pg. 69). The connection nodes are also required as secondary support to the glass canopy. The membersÃ¢â¬â¢ structural steel grades are ofÃ S355 J2 to BS EN 10025.Ã Lifting the ship was done at intermediate phases using 24 200Te SWL cylinder jacks, each under every node point. The whole process took 2 days and was aided by the installation of a series of 96 strain sensors to check loads in the metal frame of the ship and the supporting tie rods and props that held up the ship (Beedle, Ali & Armstrong 2007, pg. 32). Consultants AV Technology (AVT) installed the sensors. Deteriorated timber was replaced with equivalent wood; the objective was to replace like with like where possible. The tween was restored using new Douglas fir and hemp was used to caulk it traditionally. Hemp was used because it was easier to install and maintain since it was forced into position to create a tight deck. Composite construction used on the main deck, with a new teak upper layer and plywood lower layers (Crevello & Noyce 2008, pg. 52). The upper teak planks as well as the first lower rock elm planks were restored and reinstalled on the ship. The original plan was rock elm below the water line and teak above the water line. This is because elm
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
World Court of Justice - Essay Example Addressing the plenary session of the UN General Assembly in 1999, the then President of the International Court of Justice, Judge Stephen M. Schwebel mentioned that issues like peaceful settlement of international disputes, disarmament and the law of war, were discussed at the First Hague Peace Conference in 1899. In 1907, at the second Hague Peace Conference the creation of a permanent court of international justice was proposed. However, this proposal did not come through as the members disagreed on the procedure for the selection of judges. With the start of the First World War, this proposal took a back seat. Later, it was under the League of Nations that the Permanent Court of International Justice, or the first world court was set up in 1922. (Schwebel, 1999). The Second World War marked the end of this court and its last hearing was held in February, 1940. (Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ) The International Court of Justice follows the procedures laid out in its Statute, and in the Rules of Court adopted by it under the Statute. This includes a written phase in which the parties file and exchange pleadings, and an oral phase consisting of public hearings at which agents and counsel address the Court. After the oral proceedings, the Court deliberates in-camera, and then delivers its judgment at a public sitting.
Executive Summary of Cyber Crime Task Force Plan - Research Paper Example St. Luis just like any other organization has in the last decade faced huge challenges that relate to its online data. The changing trends incorporate defenses which counter several web crimes. These also include various changes in the development of high level software interfaces that are capable of defining notable developments in commercial web servers. Cyber security is a process that is carried out to protect computer systems from attacks, including protecting data from unauthorized access, use, transfer, disclosure or modification and this could either be intentional or accidental. Cyber attack takes several forms, notably from an internal network, public systems but the research done by Rogers, (2001) indicate that major cybercrimes are related to the use of internet. The scope of cyber crime is wide and businesses are repeatedly faced by attacks, making them victims of various kinds of security threats. In many countries, cyber crime has been criminalized and though computers are widely used to commit cyber crimes, governments have a responsibility to protect individuals and property against cyber threats, Gordon et al, (2006). According to Babu et al, (2004) unauthorized access to authenticated information has more than doubled in the last decade, estimates stating that from 2004 to 2011, break-ins have risen by over 150%. The greatest cyber crime threats that St. Louis County is currently facing Various research statistics indicate that St. Louis County reported huge capital losses which are attributed to attack on its major databases and subsequently leading to mass loss of data. Ideally, the changing provisions which are significantly based on application of IT platforms also explain that structural formation hugely contributes to cybercrimes. Ideally, IT platform also extinguishes transactions and processes that are adequately managed through a set of interfaces which are based on aided technologies that theoretically exhibit changing trends within the societal perspectives. The application of cyber crime prevention framework according to Rapaille (2007 is indicatively based on set of cultured codes that broadly classify the operational characteristics of the technological inference associated with web crime technologies. The analytical application is measured using a series of forecasts and merged technologies (Weil, 2008) which are based on diverse business values. The external factors through which cyber crime functionalities are measured explain three consequential architectural frameworks of the web crime technology. Derivatives of distributive building blocks/models that exhibit low level deployment perspectives User projections and implementation forecasts as a system model establishment base. (OÃ¢â¬â¢Reilly, 2005) Web redesign aspirations with sustainable business model establishments. The user profiles and software management developments that are based on elastic business models create the terminological relevance of the technology Which three types of cyber crime will be the top priorities for the task f The technological implementation of cyber crime control technology and its mainstream global relevance has been managed by changing trends within the competitive global markets (David, 2008). This is illustrated by the operational compatibility of its systemic units with enhanced technological preference among its
Monday, August 26, 2019
AIR Pollution - Outline Example The trend in such industrialized countries is therefore a proof of the low socio economic factors prevalent in the countries despite their strong economies as the discussion below portrays. While obesity refers to the increase in body weight, research continues to prove that poor people are more susceptible to obesity than their wealthy counterparts are. Such is a worrying correlation since it proves that large sections of the populations of the developed countries are increasingly becoming poor (Correl,2010). Obesity is a lifestyle complication and therefore arises when people cannot afford appropriate lifestyles. The increase of fast food cafes in such developed economies as the United States and the United Kingdom is an economic factor that does not only point to the rising poverty levels but also makes citizens more vulnerable to obesity. Fast food cafes dispense foods high in fat some of which are never cooked in appropriate conditions. However, the foods are cheap and convenient to most of the people in the countries who spend most of their active hours at work. Such people lack adequate time to exercise thus burn the excess calories they obtain from such foods a feature that heightens their risks of obesity. The rising cost of living in the industrialized economies compels the poor to work hard thus lacking time to exercise and burn the excess calories (Drewnowski, 2013). Despite such, the group continues to rely on fast foods thus increasing their risks of becoming obese. Furthermore, obesity sustains the cycle of poverty in such families since it increases the chances of the people suffering many other diseases, which require adequate funds to manage. Despite such close relationships between poverty and obesity, other researches continue to prove that obesity arises from social factors and is not therefore a proof of the rising poverty levels in such countries. Proper nutrition for example is a cultural problem in the United States a feature that
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Ethics in Business are an Optional Extra Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words
Ethics in Business are an Optional Extra - Essay Example ing even in corrupt practices they justified by reasoning along the lines of cultural relativism and the need for practical thinking, they believed that they were acting ethically even if their actions had unethical effects, such as promoting slave labour conditions. Increasing pressures from stakeholders are changing the behaviour of businesses, making those who manage them more aware of the need to follow higher standards of business ethics. Five different forces were identified as the sources of these pressures that are slowly but surely convincing businesses that the practice of social responsibility has become necessary. A key factor in this change of attitude is the experience that practising business ethics can help the firm achieve its purpose of earning profits whilst meeting the needs of its stakeholders. Another factor is that as more firms engaged in unethical business practices, whatever advantages they may have derived from doing so have become counterproductive, leading to serious threats to business survival. The paper concludes with the argument that ethics in business is in the process of being transformed from an Ã¢â¬Å"optional extraÃ¢â¬ to a Ã¢â¬Å"must-respond issueÃ¢â¬ that is necessary for the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s sustainability and competitiveness. This paper is a discussion of ethical practice in business. Starting with a description of business ethics and its important role in society, the discussion proceeds to the key issues related to the practice of ethics by business organisations. Examples are cited why business ethics is a controversial issue and the sources of the controversy, and how these are resolved in practice. The critical discussion that follows addresses the central question as to whether ethics is important and serves the purpose of a business, or whether it is merely an optional extra that a business could do without. The European Forum for Quality Management (EFQM, 1999) describes business ethics as a set of codes, values, and
Saturday, August 24, 2019
International Politics - Essay Example veral have maintained that realism was possibly well appropriate to the climate of the conflict between the East and the West, but is not relevant to the contemporary period that has followed it. Realism stipulates that nation-states are interested largely with the objectives of defense and survival. Their conduct, hence, is controlled and stirred by the dominant distribution of power within the realm of international relations. The post-Cold War era, as some observe, demands various conceptual instruments to understand the functioning of international politics. Specifically, these detractors of realism argue that the contemporary period can be described by such a multitude of transnational economic relationships, migratory and cultural interaction, and computer- and information-mediated communication that the traditionalist realist vision of nation-states as major and self-governing players in world politics is old-fashioned (Patomaki 2002). Furthermore, not merely has the pivotal incident of the Cold War era prompted detractors of realism to appeal for a new theory to suit a new environment, but some have emphasized that realism evidently falls short to give detail on the transformation of the bipolar Cold War setting to a new form. The failure of realism to elaborate on the transition itself demands a shift to a new-fangled theory or even theories. This essay will examine the importance of developments in the theorization of post-Cold War international politics. It is unsurprising that the decline of the Soviet bloc, perhaps the one of the greatest catastrophes of the twentieth century and incident which marked a division between the two World Wars, would create a number of critical theoretical concerns for international politics. Consequently, this will reveal hypothetically that concerns in post-Cold War international politics can be used to evaluate one of the traditional theories of international politics, realism. Several scholars of international
Friday, August 23, 2019
Islam - Essay Example It teaches that the supporter of Islam, (called a Muslim, agrees to "admit defeat to the willpower of Allah which we call God). Allah is vision as the one and only God, inventor, sustainer, and restorer of the humanity. The spirit of Allah, to which man ought to surrender, is made to believe in the course of the blessed scriptures, the Quran (Koran), which Allah exposed to his Prophet, Muhammad (P.B.U.H). In Islam Muhammad (P.B.U.H) is measured as the very last of a sequence of prophets, which includes Adam, Noah, Jesus, and many others, and Muhammad (P.B.U.H) message concurrently accomplishes and abrogates the disclosures endorsed to former messengers (Carmody & Brink, 2006, Pp 471-474). In the present times, the combination of religion and patriotism is treacherously explosive. On an individual, realistic stage, two states in a disagreement over a territory declared by both should be able to negotiate and divide the land. But when Allah's willpower is called up to despotism one or the other declares, then cooperation becomes disrespectful, and religious fanaticism creates monstrous philosophies of command, fatalities, and devastation. The religion Islam teaches peace and peace structuring principles and anticipates Muslims to exist by them. These principles are maintained in the Holy Quran and the Hadith, the Prophet (P.B.U.H) sayings.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Museum Visit Essay People throughout the world are blessed with the gift of art. We all ponder how it is accomplished and achieved, but in the end it all comes down to the remarkable artists that craft each work of art. Even though areas in the world house a substantial amount over others, there are still a number of cities that possess a great deal of art. Lucky for us, we live in a metropolitan area, and have a great art museum. In addition to that, it has plenty of it for everyone to admire and observe. The St. Louis art museum is a wonderful gallery of art to wander through. With exhibitions like MonetÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Water LiliesÃ¢â¬ , the everyday person gets to get a glimpse of the world around them that have not seen before with their own eyes. I love the St. Louis Art Museum. Even though I have lived here my whole life, I just never got around to going there. Although this has been my first visit to Art Museum, I know I will definitely go back. Once I walked in through the front doors, I was amazed. The overall size surprised me. I was actually expecting it to be small, but lucky for us, it is not. Then when I reached the third floor, I was in awe because I got to see work from the 20th century. Also it was a great feeling to see the paintings I had studied in class, and then see them in person. As I walked from room to room, and floor-to-floor I could not get enough: until the museum closed down for the night, and I was told to leave. In spite of that, I downright enjoyed myself. I forgot that I was there for a school assignment. The artwork there ranged from weapons, furniture pieces, sculptures, and paintings. It is refreshing to see something new from turn you take. Also, to see the timeline of art pass right by you as you go through the whole museum. I have chosen Ã¢â¬Å"Stairway to AuversÃ¢â¬ by Vincent Van Gogh in the Post-Impressionism Era and was made around 1890, and Ã¢â¬Å"Red, Orange, Orange on RedÃ¢â¬ by Mark Rothko is Op Art and was made in 1955. A poem was written for Ã¢â¬Å"Red, OrangeÃ¢â¬ by Mike Murawski, and it reads, Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, look out red! Move over, watch it! Scrumpf, smush, push, punch, let me through! I need some air, a breath, anything but red! MakinÃ¢â¬â¢ me feel like IÃ¢â¬â¢m struggling for the surface of the orange dark depthÃ¢â¬ (1).. The paintings both have some similarities, but many differences. Though Ã¢â¬Å"Stairway to AuversÃ¢â¬ has some subject matter, objects, and people to pick out, Ã¢â¬Å"Red, Orange, Orange on RedÃ¢â¬ does not: depending on the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s intent for the painting. Ã¢â¬Å"Red, OrangeÃ¢â¬ you can make out slightly different colored orange and red rectangles. Though both paintings are very close in time period, they do have many differences. But every bit and each piece contributes to the changes in art throughout the years, and that is truly the only thing that matters. Twilight SoundsÃ¢â¬ by Norman Lewis is an abstract expressionist painting that expresses the sound from the jazz era, and you can even make out some music notes. Ã¢â¬Å"In Beige with SandÃ¢â¬ by Robert Motherwell shows how abstract art is really done by using very few colors but accomplishing many things with the way he makes random shapes. Ã¢â¬Å"Boxcars, Minneapolis #2Ã¢â¬ by Ralston Crawford is a vague painting depicting many boxes that may symbolize a car in a city. Ã¢â¬Å"BethlehemÃ¢â¬ by Franz Kline shows a black cross with many lines passing through it on a white canvas. This might symbolize the cross being Jesus, and the black and white meaning his birth. Ã¢â¬Å"CataloniaÃ¢â¬ by Robert Motherwell has mainly circles and lines, but may represent the separation of the city because of the lines separating the circles from each other. Ã¢â¬Å"DraftÃ¢â¬ by Helen Frankenthaler depicts only a few colors but to me looks to be a sky of some sort. Ã¢â¬Å"IciÃ¢â¬ by Joan Mitchell seems to have a shape of animals or faces in the blotches of paint. Ã¢â¬Å"HelenaÃ¢â¬â¢s AustraliaÃ¢â¬ by Sigmar Polke shows an orange dark night with a few stars out almost from the perspective from a bush. January, December, NovemberÃ¢â¬ by Gerhard Ritcher seems to be a window and the colors go down according to the season or month, changing and conforming to one. Ã¢â¬Å"The Plaza After RainÃ¢â¬ by Paul Cornoyer is an amazing painting taken in a large city. The center part of the painting is three people walking through the street while it is raining while car on the road pass them by. Ã¢â¬Å"Road at the PalisadesÃ¢â¬ by Ernest Lawson is a flat view of a river or lake in New York that subject matter is a road connecting to a bridge. Maybe this was the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s road to home. Street of the Great Captain, Corodoba by Childe Hassam seems to make out a small plaza in a Hispanic originated area that shows off great lighting and bright colors. Ã¢â¬Å"Windham VillageÃ¢â¬ by Julian Alden Weir depicts an alleyway to a neighborhood and it looks to be in fall because the trees do not have any leaves. Also the neighborhood appears to be decollate because the way the homes are portrayed. Art museums are a great contribution to society. They allow you, me, and everyone else to gaze upon the art that was created for us to look at. The art that was created to keep the world of art going. Though some pieces of art may look the same, odd, different, have no subject to it, or just even look plain, it still has a place in the world to prove to everyone how our art has grown and what it has become. Without any art museums showing us what we have grown up to know, we would not believe it or maybe just not care. Now that I have been through the St. Louis art museum, I have a great deal of understanding for art, and that will stick with me no matter where I am.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Formal Sales Process in Small and Medium Size Enterprise (SME) Essay Introduction History and evolution of formal sales process Formal sales process refers to sales strategies that provide organization sales management with the direction on how to ensure effective and efficient sales. The process can also refer to the steps taken by the management to ensure satisfaction of customers buying process in a more successful way. Notably, formal salesÃ process allow companies especially Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to enhance their competitive advantage, and ensure effective sales by teaching sales teams how to succeed. The sales process dates back to ancient times but for the purpose of this study I will be focusing on post World War Two. It is surprising that there is little research on the history and development of the sales process as sales are vital to the survival of business. The earlier sales process models stem from the behavioral model AIDA (Awareness, Interest, Desire and Action) attributed to E. St. Elmo Lewis in 1898.Ã This was developed to help guide the sales force (Kotler 1999; Sheth and Sharma 2008). The sales process is inextricably linked to the buying process, which has developed significantly over the decades. It has changed from a transactional activity into a strategic supply chain function looking to add value to the business (Axelsson and Wynstra 2002; Cousins and Spekman 2003; Ketchen and Hult 2007). Through the development of the sales process there have been three key changes. The first is the development of the Ã¢â¬Ëseven steps of sellingÃ¢â¬â¢ (Dubrinsky 1980) which is based on the AIDA model. The second is the Ã¢â¬Ëevolving selling processÃ¢â¬â¢ (Moncrief and Marshall 2005) which expands on DubrinskyÃ¢â¬â¢s model and brings it up to date, with the advent of the internet and changes in the buying process. Third is Ã¢â¬Ëvalue based sellingÃ¢â¬â¢ (Rackman and DeVincentis 1998) which analyses each element of the sales process, with specific focus on the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËproblemÃ¢â¬â¢ and the real Ã¢â¬ËimplicationsÃ¢â¬â¢ of the problem. This model provides focus to the sales process into adding value to the customer. In their report, Davies et al, highlight the fact that Ã¢â¬Ëno-one was measuring true sales abilityÃ¢â¬â¢ and goes on to study the behaviors and skill set of sales professionals. Regarding measurement, Sharma said Ã¢â¬Ëwhat gets measured gets improvedÃ¢â¬â¢ which start to address the critical issues of visibility and what to measure. Neely states, Ã¢â¬Ëan organization need to identify an appropriate set of measures to assess their performanceÃ¢â¬â¢ (Neely 2007; p149).Ã Regarding behavior, Covey (1999) talks about responsibility and accountability which is a critical area of any sales process, be it formal or not. Weather, or not, an organization has a sales process, the world, and customers, are changing and the approach to sales has to change to ensure complacency does not set in (Kotter 1996). The culture and management of an organization will also impact the sales process, and vice versa, in positive and negative ways (Handy 1991). Womack and Jones (2003) are pioneers in lean thinking and believe manufacturing processes and the elimination of waste can be transferred into the back office side of the business including sales. One of the key themes that have surfaced from initial reading is that sales is a process, which needs to be followed, measured and improved to help increase the sales funnel, or pipeline, in order to grow sales (Miller and Heiman 1994; Zoltners, Sinha and Lorimer 2004; Thull 2010; McClay 2010). Porter (2004) believes that when working with customers it is important to add value and create a competitive advantage. In addition to this, Doyle suggests that the sales process can add value and create competitive advantage, which will Ã¢â¬Ëcontribute to achieving the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives of growth and profitability though meeting the needs of the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ (Doyle 2002: p.2).Ã When a formal sales process has been implemented, there is much evidence to support that the sales process should be aligned to the sales strategy and to the company strategy (Kaplan and Norton 2006; Johnson, Scholes and Whittington 2008; De Wit and Meyer 2010). In contradiction to the majority, Adamson, Dixon and Toman (2013) challenge the need for a formal sales process and believe the sales functionÃ¢â¬â¢s approach should be based on insight and judgment. Effects of a formal sales process on an SME and its people Selling is a communal as well as a business activity and can be defined quite simply as Ã¢â¬Å"making a saleÃ¢â¬ underpinned by several strategies and personal skills across a range of tasks and promotion situations (TAS Group, 2014). The sales task within a business is accountable for the vital creation of revenues, delivers financial stimuli and forms the fundamental connection between a business and its customers (McClay, 2010; Moncrieff and Marshall 2005). Moreover, business dealings rely on persons and more so how they transact with customers, making the buyer-seller edge a highly capricious interface. On the other hand, formal sales process is the sales strategies that provide the sales management force with the direction on how to sell. Ã It is the process that allow companies especially Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to scale their sale force by teaching sales teams how to succeed. According to Johnson et al (2006), formal sales process provides the sales management team with a framework from which to manage and enable measurement and continuous improvement of the sales force performance. More specifically, a formal sales process enables sales managers maintain control over specific sales behaviors as dictated by the system adopted in Small and Medium Enterprise (SMEs).Ã Formal sales processes in the SMEs context help sales management teams. They also help managers understand which measures should be adopted for understanding prospecting, qualifying and performance measurement. Additionally, formal sales processes enable sales managers learn how to replicate good behaviors and eliminate undesirable ones besides recognizing problems before they turn to be major roadblocks (Lii, 2011). If there is one component of the selling system that is most taken for granted is the sales process. Although executives spend some of their times forming strategies, developingÃ entrepreneurial skills and measuring performanceÃ of their employees, they hardly strategize on the formal sales process; that is the activities their salespeople must execute toÃ shift an activity from lead generation to closure (Lii, 2011). In a broad spectrum, the sales process, be it be formal or informal is the backbone of any sales force. Ã According to Lii (2011), the formal sales process is selling strategy, which was introduced to facilitate a sell-aside process in sells concerning public mergers and acquisition context. Moreover, the sales process is a much more advantageous in the sales process involving Small and Medium EnterprisesÃ¢â¬â¢ and is quite distinct from the traditional means of executing sales.Ã Notably, for a sales process to be termed as good and successful, the right steps at the right time should be initiated and adopted within the Small and Medium EnterprisesÃ vicinity as well asÃ making the right decisions. As argued by Blair (2005), for the formal process to work in the SMEs, the sales management team should workÃ Ã tirelessly to keep the correct movement in track. This owes to the fact that without a good flow in selling and buying for the prospective customers to follow and for the sales management team to follow, the sales will remain to be low and potential customers may look elsewhere (Blair, 2005). Formal sales process allows SMEs to scales its sales force by teaching its sales people how to success. Contrary to the informal process that is normally adopted by many and characterized by unorganized techniques, formal sales process in SMEs measures and manages the sales force. Consequently, Sales management teams understand this and strive to develop standard operating strategies for their workforce to follow hence the formal sales process (Johnson et al., 2006). Essentially, the nature of sales process has critically changed. Sales organizations are being reinvented to better address the needs of the changing marketplaces. More evidently, there are different drivers of change in diverse sales organizations that have been identified in reinventing sales organizations and are perceived to help an organization compete successfully in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s selling environment. With the use of the formal sales process, different Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) have realized a measurable change in the levels of sales they acquire. The formal sales process has enabled SMEs to build long-term relationships with their customers. According to (Dar, 2006),this is because formal sales process is a structured line of attack that enables time-to-time assessment of customerÃ¢â¬â¢s value hence focusing on the high- priority customers. Secondly, formal sales process aids in creating sales organizational structures that are more nimble and adaptable to the needs of different customer groups. It is in this perspective that formal sales process is beneficial in that it enables Small and Medium EnterprisesÃ¢â¬â¢ (SMEs) compete well in the entire markets when willing to customizeÃ their sales efforts to meet their customers preferred ways of doing business (Adamson et al., (2013). In addition, in the modern markets; especially SMEs related markets, flexibility which is important to the formal sales process is viewed as an asset, which can determine the level of sales. Thirdly, according to Dar (2006), with the adoption of formal sales process, SMEs gain greater job ownership and commitment from sales management team. Moreover, this is only accomplished when the formal sales team removes functional barriers within the sales organization more so by leveraging the teams experience as a whole. More importantly,Ã formal sales process helps shift the sales management style from commanding to coaching. In this, the sales management team and managers create a conducive environment that allows the sales team uses their talents and abilities to secure, build and maintain relationships with the profitable customers. Davis et al (2011) discuss that for the formal sales process to work efficiently and yield the desired results, the management style has to change. Nevertheless, the other visible formal sales impact on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is that formal sales process enables leveraging of the available technology for the success of the sales management team ( Dar, 2006). For instance, formal sales have greatly changed the traditional (informal) sales process in that, its adoption leads to adoption of technological tools. Therefore, sales teams that use the available technology well have a strong competitive edge over others. Consequently, firms globally are investing millions of money in technological advancement in the sales sector to help improve their sales performance. Finally, According to Hayes, (2003), the integration of the formal sales process in then SMEs sales platform encourages the acceptance of better integration mechanisms for sales-team performance evaluations.Ã Ã Essentially, a real weakness of the informal sales process in the verge of the Small and Medium Enterprises SMEs is on how to evaluate and ultimately reward the sales personnel. However, the use and integration of the formal sales process has solved these problems and instead provided well-marked evaluation strategies hence bringing a positive image of the SMEs and works successfully as a strategy for sales Different sales processes A sales process or strategy is not all about closing business deals; it is about defining a sales process that vividly reflects the image of the organization or firm, the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s customers, the products or services it offers and the solution that it offers in the market. By truly understanding its customers and by desiring to solve its customerÃ¢â¬â¢s problems, a business can plan to execute a sales process that will accelerate the likelihood of reaching its ultimate goal (Sales educators, 2006). According to the sales educators (2006), there is no specific best way to conduct the sales process. A companyÃ¢â¬â¢s personality and the sales team desire to achieve as well as the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s background determines the type of sales technique that best suits its sales endeavors ( Porter, 2004). Ã Even though every company in the corporate world has its own sales methodologies, it is always advised that trying different sales processes is healthier. This is because new sales methods keep a company out of rut and may even work better than expected. Therefore, many salespersons even those operating in the B2B environment use a combination of different approaches (Rackman DeVincentis, 1998). The different sale processes mostly utilized by different sales teams include; older takers, inside sales, outside sales, the guru, the consultant, the networker, the hard seller and active sales among others. Most importantly, every sales process is aimed at increasing the sales to the current customers and finding new ones. However, different businesses and organizations deploy numerous sales processes with shockingly ineffective results. In some cases, when sales management teams use more than one sales process, customers are to same point confused by the different methods of every firm and probably cross selling is limited (Neely, 2007). Sales processes vary significantly according to how much a seller adapts to different selling situations and how much the selling team adapts to customer encounters during the entire sells encounter. According to Neely (2007), among the best sales processes or approaches are the problems solving models, needs satisfaction and consultative selling. Among the three mentioned types of selling processes, in terms of rethinking the sells process, researchers endorse their use to fit any situation on the ground. Neely (2006) argues that consultative selling process is appropriate when the customer is willing to share strategic priorities with the seller and sees the seller as being capable of supporting the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic initiatives. Universally, every business is inimitable, hence it should have exceptional sales process to sell service and manage different customers under diverse conditions (Kotter, 1996). Therefore, sales researchers including sales managers across the world are disturbed by the question on whether business should adopt generic sales processes or implement and strengthen a specific sales strategy. Ã Since business aim at working with the most profitable strategies, studies prove that nonspecific approaches are demanding and possess numerous demerits that include; lack of custom customer profile, lack of metrics that matter, and its association with inflexible business management approaches among others (Johnson et al., 2008). Therefore, sales process needs to be specific. How a formal sales process can improve performance and competitive advantage? According to Thull, (2010), sales process is one of the most components of the selling system that for many decades has been abandoned by many Small and Medium Enterprises (SME). The author eludes that failure to effectively execute a well established formal sales process acts as an impediment to performance and successes of the organization. As a matter of fact, sales process is a vital component in an organization that if well implemented can lead to enhanced competitive advantage and performance or an organization. TAS Group, (2014), affirms that sales process is the backbone of an organization and should not be overlooked at any cost. Notably, most sales managers in many organizations spend most of the time coming up with strategies, building tools, measuring performance and developing skills (Rackman and DeVincentis, 1998). Nevertheless, the author affirms that only a few organizations consider and ensure effective implementation of a well established and organized formal sales process. A sales process in this case is regarded as series of task that must be undertaken by salespeople within an organization to tap and generate opportunities from the lead to closure (Thull, 2010). In a broad spectrum, sales process is an essential component of any sales force in an organization and if carefully and effectively implemented can impact on the success of the organization even in a highly competitive business environment (Thull, 2010). According to Rackman and DeVincentis, (1998), overlooking sales process within an organization hinders sales performance and output even though the organization sales executive have laid down well established sales strategy, tools, skills and metrics in place. Without doubts, this implies that effective of formal sales process implementation in a SME is a strategy of enhancing the performance or the company (Rackman and DeVincentis, 1998). More importantly, sales process can be used to improve the competitive advantage of an organization especially when the process is aligned properly with the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s target. In this case, effective alignment of the two lead to enhanced competitive advantage through creation of a world class sales force (TAS Group, 2014).Ã Performance of an organization is enhanced by the sales process in the sense that the process provides mechanisms of measuring performance. According to Rackman and DeVincentis, (1998), an organization has nothing to measure if it does not have a process.Ã The author adds that it is difficult improve organization performance if there are no mechanisms of measuring the current performance. Ultimately, sales process is undoubtedly an effective component in an organization to stir performance as it provides mechanism of determining the current performance of the organization and propose changes that need to be effected to improve the performance in the long run.Ã Essentially, the sales process is critical in SME as it provides a logical framework with various activities, milestones and targets that are used to measure performance (TAS Group, 2014). In this case, an organization which effectively implements sales process is likely to have improved performance. Use of diverse measure in the process of sales process such as calls reports by the salespersons are vital in ensuring they work hard and thus improve the overall performance of the Small Medium Enterprises. According to TAS Group, (2014), the major focus to enhance the organization performance and competitive advantage is simply ensuring effective alignment; implementation and renewal of sales process faster and efficiently than other competitors. Sales process in some way behaves like manufacturing process. In this case, improving sales productivity within a SME, various measures must be put in place stating from the initial sales stage to the end point (TAS Group, 2014). Development of measures ensures that the sales process adopted and implemented by a particular organization is able to address all the need and expectations of the customers through effective alignment of the buying and selling processes. The process of formal sales in SME can never be undermined owing in mind that the process aims to ensure a close relationship between the buyers and the sellers through the use of salespersons. Creation and maintenance of a good relationship between the two parties is imperative as it ensure the needs, concerns and expectation of the buyers are addressed in time and thus result to loyalty (Thull, 2010). This in turn helps to improve the performance of an organization since there will be enhanced sales volume. The presence and implementation of formal sales process is evidently a vital component in ensuring organization have close contact with their customers including prospective customers. In a broad spectrum, development of an effective relationship and alignment of the buying and selling process is crucial in ensuring customerÃ¢â¬â¢s loyalty. In this regard, improved customerÃ¢â¬â¢s loyalty creates confidence to the organization in terms of increased sales volume and thus enhanced competitive advantage compared to its rivals (Thull, 2010).Ã In addition, the relationship helps the organization to work harder to ensure maximum satisfaction of the customers need and concerns through addressing various challenges facing the process and discovering opportunities that may arise. This also helps to improve the performance and competitive advantage of organizations especially Small and Medium Enterprises. Essentially, sales process aims to ensure an effective alignment of the salespersonÃ¢â¬â¢s selling process with the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s buying process. Effective alignment of the two processes is vital to organizations as it ensures needs and expectations of the customers or rather the buyers are met in every step of the buying process. In addition, the alignment leads to an effective and efficient sale in the long run hence improved performance (Porter, 2004).Similarly, if the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and expectations are carefully addressed through the sales process, it is more likely that the competitor will not have the opportunity to entice the same buyer to turn to their organization in this way, sales process helps to enhance competitive advantage of Small and Medium Enterprises (Porter, 2004). A critical assessment of how a sales process aligns with a customer buying process According to Davis et al, (2011), sales have two different sale view points, that is, the sellerÃ¢â¬â¢s and the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective. However, the two sale point differs based on their importance. The buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective is more essential compared to the sellerÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view due to the fact that satisfaction of the buyers is the utmost objective of the sales process. Davis et al, (2011), affirms that organizations have to ensure diverse initiatives and means to ensure satisfaction of the buyers needs and expectations as their purchasing power depend wholly on their perception on organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s effort to ensure satisfaction (TAS Group, 2014). The buying and selling process are mirror images of each other. Notably, buying process refers to the various steps that current customers use to identify and fulfill their need and expectations (Zoltners et al, 2004). Buying process may vary in time based on the type of product or services a customer want to purchase. However, being short or long, the work of a seller is to ensure buyer or rather customer satisfaction in every step. On the other hand, selling or sales processing is simply the steps or activities that are undertaken by sellers to ensure accomplishment of buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s goals, needs and expectations. According to Handy, (1991), buying and sales processes are mirror image of each other in an effective sale.Ã The two processes align together in that they usually start together and end together having common steps or activities between them. According to Kaplan and Norton, (2006), successful alignment of sales or selling process with the buying process in as essential component within an organization especially SME as it ensure effective and efficient sales. The author affirms that the alignment is based on the way the buyer go from one step to another (buying process), as fast as possible with the aim to find goods and services that satisfy their needs and expectations from the seller, while the seller undertakes and closes all steps with the aim to meet customers or rather buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s need throughout the process (Handy, 1991). Dubinsky, (1980/81), suggests that when selling and buying process work together, the result is that sales will be successful and efficient and most importantly, the expectations and the needs of the buyer will be met. In broad spectrum, the alignment of buying and sales process tends to ensure that every step of buying process correspond to a particular step of the sales or the selling process (Dubinsky, 1980/81).Ã The figure below illustrate how the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s buying and salesperson selling processes are aligned to ensure satisfaction of buyers at every step and ensure effective and efficient sales within and organization over a given period of time. Aligning buying and selling processes CustomerÃ¢â¬â¢s buying process Salesperson selling process However, if there is no close relationship between the two process (customersÃ¢â¬â¢ buying and salespersons selling processes), the entire sales process is likely to be inefficient and ineffective. In this regard, the expectations and needs of the customers will not be fully met by the salespersons. According to Kaplan and Norton, (2006), sellers should be keen during sales process to ensure they do not omit any step or in other words ensure every buying process step correspond with a particular selling process step. According to Kaplan and Norton, (2006), misaligning the two processes has greater negative impacts to an organization. For instance, omitting a particular step in the sales process that is aimed to correspond to a particular step in the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s buying process means that specific need and expectations of the buyers will not be met. This in turn interpret that the customers will turn to other organizations that keen in addressing their needs thus losing their competitive advantage and lead to decline in performance (Dubinsky, 1980/81). Critical assessment of alignment of customerÃ¢â¬â¢s buying process and the salespersons selling process brings out the need for SME to adopt and implement an effective sales process within their organization to ensure they meet their customers need and enhance sale, competitive advantage and performance in the long run (Kaplan and Norton, 2006). Factors to consider when designing, or redesigning, a formal sales process and to make recommendations to the owners of an SME Traditionally, the sales departments have operated informally, with each sales person acting in their distinct ways that in most cases are non-documented, personally derived and non-measured. With the current escalating competition in terms of sales, price war and technological development and design of new and redesign of the existing formal sales processes is inevitable. In response to these forces, small and medium size enterprises need to plan, implement and control their personal contacts programs in order to achieve sales and profit motives of the firms. Designing of formal sale process is a complex and critical undertaking that requires careful scrutiny and a logical examination in its development since it is core in the success of a business (Rickman and DeVincentis, 1998). The going concern of a business entity largely relies on the effectiveness and operativeness of the sales processes in place. Small and medium size enterprises exist with a view to making profit and there fore effort should be made to ensure that they remain competitive and retain a reputable status in the market. Due to, the fragility and sensitivity of formal sales process design and redesign, several factors should be put into considerations in order to safeguard the successful life of the firms. For instance, competencies and skills available in the firm, encompasses the qualification and experience of employees especially management and the Sales department staff. For example the less experienced low level manager spend most time in staffing, monitoring and giving directives to salespersons. The top managers on the other hand, are generally concerned with complex issues of planning, budgeting organizing and coordinating sale strategies with other objectives of small and medium size enterprises. The new design should accommodate the available skill and technology. In the event of limitation of the part of staff qualification, it is worthy to reconsider redesigning the sales strategies, to make them possible to implement operate and eventually achieve the objectives set by the management.Ã According to Lodato (2006), business sale strategies should be implemented with efficiency with the sole priority of increasing sale despite the completion from rivals. Further more, a look at the geographical coverage and the nature of clients helps determine the correct direction to take. Expansion of business to include a wide coverage necessitates redesigns of sale s process to incorporate the needs and worried of new clients explored. This is through studying and examining their lifestyles, culture and believes and the consumption behavior (Tas Group, 2014).The formal redesign will be there fore necessary in as a way of reinforcing new ways of behavior. Additionally, the sales price and the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ economic status should be put into attention. It is worth noting that people consumption pattern entirely depends upon their social economic position and the value of goods and services offered in the market. Visions of the firm should not be trodded underfoot in the process of designing and redesigning the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s formal sale process. The necessity of vision and plan in implementation of firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ objectives is immense (Porter, 2004), Incorporating the vision of the firms is instrumental in determining whether or not the existing strategies are sufficient or not and the need to streamline them to preserve attractive culture of internal work. Solely adding more marketing and sales people is not sufficient .however it should be back up by the firms operational capabilities may produce sale revues needed to increase continuous growth and improvement. Other issue to reflect in designing of formal sales process (FSP) is the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation. The current level of employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s inspiration should be assessed and its effectiveness determined. According to Lauby (2005), motivated workers are highly productive compared to their counterparts irrespective of the qualification and skills possessed. There for the factor that drives employees to their peak performances are determined, followed by implementation of the motivation program. Since not every employee is motivated by the same thing, there is need to include diverse programs ranging from bonus pools individual recognition rewards and group performance acknowledgment. This makes workers feel appreciated for the job well done (Lauby, 2005, p.291) With a view to improving the sale level with business organizations, the manager and owner need to make realignment and readjusted of the operations within the entity and incorporate mechanisms to link product buying process and formal sales process. Majorly, emphasizing on the competence of sales and marketing staff to ensure the easy and efficient implementation of developed marketing strategies at all level of business operations. Recruiting personnel with high qualification that met the current market demands and cope with the stiff competition. The owners should use this as a competitive advantage to maintain their status and reputation. Additionally they ought to explore the nature of their customers with respect to culture, social economic and consumption behavior and pattern especially in new markets discovered. Moreover, the owners should institute programs aimed at motivating the workers. Establishing individual and group recognition reward will make employees feel acknowledged for their work well done and as a result stimulate their peak performance. References Adamson, B., Dixon, M., and Toman, N., 2013. Dismantling the Sales Machine. Harvard Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Business Review Axelsson, B., and Wynstra, F., 2002. Buying Business Services. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ltd. Blair, C. (2005). Four characters of selling: Speak the way your buyers listen, listen the way Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã your buyers Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã speak. Calgary: West Creek Resources. Blaxter, L., Hughes, C., and Tight, M., 2006. How to Research. 3rd Edition. Maidenhead: Open Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã University Press. Bryman, A., and Bell, E., 2003. Business Research Methods. 2nd Edition. Oxford: Oxford Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã University Press. Cousins, P.D., and Spekman, R., 2003. Strategic supply and the management of inter and intra- organisational relationships. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 9(1), 19-Ã Ã Ã 29. Covey, S.R., 1999. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. London: Simon and Schuster UK Ã Ltd. Darr, A. (2006). Selling technology: The changing shape of sales in an information economy. Ã Ã Ã Ithaca, N.Y: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Cornell University Press. Davis, I.A., Le Meunier-FitzHugh, K., Ryals, L.J., and Ward, R. 2011. Improving the Sales Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Force. Cranfield University Paper. De Wit, B., and Meyer, R., 2010. Strategy Process, Content and Context International Ã Ã Perspective. 4th Edition. Hampshire: Cengage Learning EMEA. Doyle, P., 2002. Marketing Management and Strategy. Essex: Pearson Education Limited. Dubinsky, A.J., 1980/81.Ã A Factor Analytical study of the Personal Selling Process. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management. 1(1), 26-33. Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R., and Jackson, P., 2012. Management Research. 4th Edition. Ã Ã Ã Ã London: Sage Handy, C., 1991. Gods of Management. Great Britain: Souvenir Press Ltd. Hayes, I. S. (2003). Just enough wireless computing. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. Iii, H. C. W. (2011). Sales: What a concept!. S.l.: Lulu Com. Johnson, G., Scholes, K., and Whittington, R., 2008.Ã Exploring Corporate Strategy. 8th Edition. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Essex: Pearson Education Limited. Kaplan, S., and Norton, P., 2006.Ã Alignment: Using the Balanced Scorecard to Create Ã Corporate Synergies. Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation. Ketchen, D.J.Jnr., and Hult, G.T.M., 2007. Bridging Organisational Theory and Supply Chain Management: The Case of Best Value Supply Chains. Journal of Operations Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Management, 25, 573-580. Kotler, P., 1999. Kotler on marketing how to create, win and dominate markets. New York: Free Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Press. Kotter, J.P., 1996. Leading Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing. Lauby, S. J. (2005). Motivating employees. Alexandria, Va: ASTD Press Lodato, M. W. (2006). Integrated sales process management: A methodology for improving Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã sales Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã effectiveness in the 21st century. Bloomington: AuthorHouse McClay, R., 2010. Fortify Your Sales Force. New Jersey: John Wiley Sons Inc. Miller, R.B., Heiman, S.E., and Tuleja, T., 1994.Ã Successful Large Account Management. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã London: Kogan Page Limited Moncrief, W.C., and Marshall, G.W., 2005. The Evolution of the Seven Steps of Selling. Industrial Marketing Management. 34(1), 13-22. Neely, A., 2007.Ã Business Performance Measurement: Unifying Theory and Integrating Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Neville, C., 2007. Introduction to Research and Research Methods. [PDF] University of Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Bradford. Available at: http://www.brad.ac.uk/introduction-to-research-methods.pdf Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã [accessed 8th June 2014] Porter, M. E., 2004. Competitive Advantage. New York: Simon and Schuster Inc. Rackman, N., and DeVincentis, J., 1998. Rethinking the Sales Forces: Redefining Selling to Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Create and Capture Value. Washington, D.C.: McGraw-Hill. Sales Educators. (2006). Strategic sales leadership: Breakthrough thinking for breakthrough Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã results. Mason, Ohio: Thomson. Saunders, M., Lewin, P., and Thornhill, A., 2012. Research Methods for Business Students. 6th Edition. Harlow: FT Prentice Hall. Sheth, J.N., and Sharma, A., 2008. The impact of the product to service shift in industrial Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã markets and the evolution of the sales organisation. Industrial Marketing Management, Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 37(3), 260-269. TAS Group, 2014. Sales Process Optimisation and the Enterprise. White Paper. Thull. J., 2010. Mastering the Complex Sale. 2nd Edition. New Jersey: John Wiley Sons Inc. Womack, J.P., and Jones, D.T. 2003. Lean Thinking. New York: Simon and Schuster Inc. Zoltners, A.A., Prabhakant, S., and Lorimer, S.E., 2004. Sales Force Design. New York: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Palgrave Macmillan.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Effects of Level of Nutrition on Milk Yield and Composition Effects of Level of Nutrition on Milk Yield and Composition of Cows Fed Natural Grazing and Offered Different Supplements, in South Kordofan, Sudan ABSTRACT: Three feed ingredients that were locally used as supplements and fed to dairy cattle were offered to three groups of dairy cows while one group was considered as control and left on the natural grazing only and another one was offered a ration formulated to meet maintenance and production requirements. Milk quantity and its composition were monitored for 40 days. The results showed that supplementation of cows with 1.5 kg of any feed ingredient resulted in increment of milk production compared with those left on the natural grazing alone. Supplementation with oil seed cakes or cotton seeds was better as supplements than sorghum grains in promoting milk production. The highest performance was achieved with the group was fed 1.0 kg of formulated ration. The milk yield increased linearly (p
An icon of power and strength, Alcatraz has become the single most recognizable symbol of American society. Situated in the San Francisco Bay, one canÃ¢â¬â¢t help but be drawn to the rocky shore, the dark walls, and the lone light tower sanding cold against a picturesque sunset imagining what it would have been like to be incarcerated in one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most infamous prisons. Discovered in 1775 by the Spanish explorer Juan Miguel de Ayala, La Isla de los Alcatraces was little more than a rock inhabited by a group of pelicans from which the island bears its name (Alcatraces meaning pelicans in Spanish). However, in 1847 the US government began to look at it as much more. Strategically placed at the mouth of the San Francisco Bay it was the perfect site for a military fort. By 1853 a state of the art military fortress was protecting the Western United States against foreign infiltration. In 1861, with outbreak of the Civil War, Alcatraz began receiving its first military prisoners. However, it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until 1898 and the Spanish- American War that the isolation of the island that made it an impregnable military installation also made it an inescapable prison. During this war the prisoner population jumped from 26 to 450. That number spiked again as civil prisoners were transferred from city jails after the famous 1906 earthquake. With the island becoming more and more a prison and less and less a military fort, a cell house was built in 1912. This is generally felt to be the p...
Monday, August 19, 2019
1. INTRODUCTION Recent years have witnessed a dramatic increase in our ability to collect data from various sensors, devices, in different formats, from independent or connected applications. This data ood has outpaced our capability to process, analyze, store and understand these datasets. Consider the Internet data. The web pages indexed by Google were around one million in 1998, but quickly reached 1 billion in 2000 and have already exceeded 1 trillion in 2008. This rapid expansions accelerated by the dramatic increase in acceptance of social networking applications, such as Facebook, Twitter, Weibo, etc., that allow users to create contents freely and amplify the already huge Web volume. Furthermore, with mobile phones becoming the sensory gateway to get real-time data on people from different aspects, the vast amount of data that mobile carrier can potentially process to improve our daily life has significantly outpaced our past CDR (call data record)-based processing for billing purposes only. It can be foreseen that Internet of things applications will raise the scale of data to an unprecedented level. People and devices (from home code machines to cars, to buses, railway stations and airports) are all loosely connected. Trillions of such connected components will generate a huge data ocean, and valuable information must be discovered from the data to help improve quality of life and make our world a better place. For example, after we get up every morning, in order to optimize our commute time to work and complete the optimization before we arrive at once, the system needs to process information from trace, weather, construction, police activities to our calendar schedules, and perform deep optimization under the tight t... ...Data explains that in 2012, 23% (643 exabytes) of the digital universe would be useful for Big Data if tagged and analyzed. However, currently only 3% of the potentially useful data is tagged, and even less is analyzed. CONCLUSIONS Big Data is going to continue growing during the next years, and each data scientist will have to manage much more amount of data every year. This data is going to be more diverse, larger, and faster. We discussed in this paper some insights about the topic, and what we consider are the main concerns, and the main challenges for the future. Big Data is becoming the new Final Frontier for scientific data research and for business applications. We are at the beginning of a new era where Big Data mining will help us to discover knowledge that no one has discovered before. Everybody is warmly invited to participate in this intrepid journey.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
SWOT Analysis What is SWOT Analysis? SWOT analysis is a basic, straightforward model that provides direction and serves as a basis for the development of marketing plans. It accomplishes this by assessing an organizations strengths (what an organization can do) and weaknesses (what an organization cannot do) in addition to opportunities (potential favorable conditions for an organization) and threats (potential unfavorable conditions for an organization). SWOT analysis is an important step in planning and its value is often underestimated despite the simplicity in creation. The role of SWOT analysis is to take the information from the environmental analysis and separate it into internal issues (strengths and weaknesses) and external issues (opportunities and threats). Once this is completed, SWOT analysis determines if the information indicates something that will assist the firm in accomplishing its objectives (a strength or opportunity), or if it indicates an obstacle that must be overcome or minimized to achieve desi red results (weakness or threat) (Marketing Strategy, 1998). Elements of SWOT Analysis Strengths and Weaknesses Relative to market needs and competitors' characteristics, a manager must begin to think in terms of what the firm can do well and where it may have deficiencies. Strengths and weaknesses exist internally within a firm, or in key relationships between the firm and its customers. SWOT analysis must be customer focused to gain maximum benefit, a strength is really meaningful only when it is useful in satisfying the needs of a customer. At this point, the strength becomes a capability (Marketing Strategy, 1998). When writing down strengths, it is imperative that they be considered from both the view of the firm as well as from the customers that are dealt with. These strengths should be realistic and not modest. A well-developed listing of strengths should be able to answer a couple of questions. What are the firm's advantages? What does the firm do well (PMI, 1999)? A customer-focused SWOT may also uncover a firm's potential weaknesses. Although some weaknesses may be harmless, those that relate to specific customer needs should be minimized if at all possible. In addition, a focus on a firm's strengths in advertising is promotion is important to increase awareness in areas that a firm excels in. This method not only evokes a positive response within the minds of the consumer, but pushes the weaknesses further from the decision making process (Marketing Strategy, 1998). Weaknesses should also be considered from an internal and external viewpoint. It is important that listing of a firm's weaknesses is truthful so that they may be overcome as quickly as possible.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Researching and visual observations of the community that one lives in is a true eye opener. I have chosen to research and conduct a Windshield survey in the town that I have lived in for the past three years. I was surprised at the amount of information that I was obtained by driving around, observing, asking questions, and conducting research online. Several areas of concern that have a potential to affect the health of the community were identified; obesity, diabetes, and the increase exposure to carbon monoxide poisoning.The two areas that I will focus my study on are obesity and carbon monoxide poisoning. Three community nursing diagnosis that I have arrived at are one, Risk for associated health complications related to obesity, two, Risk for poisoning related to exposure to carbon monoxide inhalation and three, Deficit knowledge related to health risks of smoking. As stated by Advameg, Inc. , 2003-2010, obesity in this community is 19. 6%, which is compared to a rate of 23. 3% in the state of New Jersey. Health complications are a concern in this population related to obesity.It is not clear why this community has a high rate of obesity as this community has a large population of educated blue-collar worker, which does not fit the typical population of obesity. Obesity in the country is on a rise, and this may be related to the lack of education on healthy eating habits and influences in the media with ads and commercials from food vendors. Education is important to this population and assisting them with alternative options. A nursing intervention would be to implement a group meeting within the community for obesity education.During these meetings discussions on different weight loss methods, complications associated with obesity, diet suggestions, and increase physical activity options would be helpful. Several partnerships may be made with this community such as Weight Watchers. Holding meetings in the borough hall with this weight loss group within the town will encourage the community to be involved because it is brought to them. These interventions will have a positive effect on the community to help reduce the incidence of obesity among adults.Risk for poisoning related to exposure to carbon monoxide inhalation is the second community nursing diagnosis that I have chosen because the carbon monoxide rate is above the average for the country. Advameg Inc. , 2003-2010, states that the carbon monoxide level for the country is 0. 334 ppm and for Dumont it is 0. 422 ppm. As a community nurse it is important to intervene and formulate a plan of action to help reduce the exposure to carbon monoxide within the homes of this community.Performing a risk assessment is a start, going into individual family homes, especially with elders and children and reviewing any tests that may have been performed and visual observation of the environment will gain knowledge on where to begin. Ã¢â¬Å"The most proximal exposures are in the home enviro nment, such as appliances that leak high levels of carbon monoxide or damp home materials that harbor moldsÃ¢â¬ (Barnes et al. , 2010, para. 3). Education within the families of the community is important to reducing the exposure. By working in the most proximal environment where environmental exposures occur, the intervention has greater specificity in addressing risks tailored to each family's needsÃ¢â¬ (Barnes et al. , 2010, para. 3). Providing the families with educational material and organizations that may help is important. A partnership with the health care provider of the individual or family is beneficial in this area. The health care provider can assist with the educational material on the dangerous of such exposures and signs and symptoms.The Environmental Protection Agency may also assist with protection of individuals who are within a community that has high levels of exposure to carbon monoxide. Several websites can be assessed for information and decreasing exp osures such as the Centers for Disease Control. Deficit knowledge related to health risks of smoking. Not only are individuals unaware of the risks that they are imposing on themselves in relations to smoking but they are unaware of the risks that they are placing on the individuals within the community.One of the Healthy People 2020 health indictors is tobacco use. In this community they can benefit from raising awareness of the negative effects of smoking not only to the individual smoking but the people that surround them. Public education with flyers, posters, and visiting schools to target individuals who smoke and those that donÃ¢â¬â¢t to help encourage people to stop smoking would be a way that I would reach out to the community. Providing information at the borough hall would be another way to get the word out to individuals in the community to help keep the town smoke free.Partnerships with the American Cancer Society can be made to help educate the individuals on the ris ks that they are placing themselves and others at by smoking. Several other organizations are available to help individuals quit such as their primary health care providers or websites smokefree. gov. As in any community there are many risk associated with living in that particular community. Other factors that affect the community are the cultures that may congregate within them. A community more culturally diverse will see many different health concerns that a community which is not as diverse.According to The Office of Minority Health (2010), Ã¢â¬Å"The Office is dedicated to improving the health of racial and ethnic minority populations through the development of health policies and programs that will help eliminate health disparitiesÃ¢â¬ (About OMH, para. 1). They partnership with community that have a higher incidence of diseases among specific cultures such as African American, Asian, and Hispanic, to name a few. In Dumont I have found based on my windshield survey and res earch, there is not a wide range of cultures as approximately 67% of the population is white alone (Advameg, Inc. 2003-2010). In conducting the windshield survey, I could determine the areas of concern for the community that I reside in and how I may help to reduce the exposures and risks to myself and my family. Because I am a nurse it does not mean that I always have an open eye to what is going on around me. Several risk factors which I was unaware of being exposed to have given me the motivation to make changes within the community. The community partnered with other community and agencies will make a positive step to promotion and prevention of health disparities.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Abraham LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s Emancipation Proclamation is still, to date, one of the most debated, revolutionary acts of the any of the Presidents of the United States. Through this document Lincoln took responsibility upon himself for the freedom of four million slaves throughout the divided country he presided over and forever changed the scene of what could be a very different American culture than that of which we live in presently today. After reading LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America, written by Allen C. Guelzo, I am fully convinced that LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s accomplishment through that document is very under credited not only by African Americans today, but also by their white counterparts in regards to the lasting impact it made for the future of the races in this country. Allen C. Guezlo opens his book on the defensive for Abraham Lincoln. Guezlo explains that when the topic of LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s Emancipation Proclamation comes to mind, basically , either you appreciate it at face value for what it accomplished and stands for, or you are a skeptic. Today more than ever, the ProclamationÃ¢â¬â¢s skeptics focus on what the document did not accomplish rather than what it did. In his book, Guezlo works at answering the four main questions that critics will raise regarding the Proclamation. Why is the language of the Proclamation so bland and Legalistic? Did the Proclamation actually do anything? Did the slaves free themselves? Did Lincoln issue the Proclamation to ward off European influence or boost Union morale? In defense of Lincoln, Guezlo takes us through a detailed chronology of the events leading up to the weighted decision made by Lincoln in September 1862, including incredible evidence in the form of documented conversations and eye witness accounts. Abraham Lincoln was a product of the end of the Enlightenment Era, an era that emphasized the age of reason and logic. Being a lawyer by profession, Lincoln exhibited an incredible display of prudence in making his decisions and showed an exceptional respect for the law. When considering the term Ã¢â¬Å"prudenceÃ¢â¬ , Guezlo makes it a point to examine the word in the fashion of hat it would have meant to the classical philosophers that Lincoln came to admire. In this sense, prudence isnÃ¢â¬â¢t defined as what it is known as today. By todayÃ¢â¬â¢s definition, a person who is Ã¢â¬Å"prudeÃ¢â¬ is thought to display exaggerated caution, hesitation, lack of will, and fearfulness. According to Guezlo, the prudence that Lincoln display ed while in office would be better compared to the virtues of the classical philosophers who influenced the Enlightenment period which attributed prudence to shrewdness and sound judgment. Considering all the different obstacles that were thrown at Lincoln during his presidency, he needed to ensure that his actions were deliberate and would achieve a long term lasting effect as he was very cautious and untrusting when considering the judiciary branch of the government. Lincoln understood that any decision he made would be readily tested against the powers afforded to him by the constitution sooner or later. He did not want to take any chances in going about the emancipation process loosely, especially considering the amount of opponents he was going to face regarding the topic of emancipation both in the North and the South. Of the many ways to go about the emancipation process, LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s preference was that which consisted of three main features, Ã¢â¬Å"gradualism, compensation, and the vote of the peopleÃ¢â¬ . He rebuked ideas of using either the Confiscation Acts and Benjamin ButlerÃ¢â¬â¢s contraband theory as well as the idea of martial law in order to achieve long term emancipation. As far as the contraband theory was concerned, at best Lincoln new that it would make slaves wards of the government until the end of the war. After compromise was reached, the fate of these men was out of his hands and into the hands of the ruling courts which would likely allow them to be reclaimed by their masters. Before issuing his own proclamation, Lincoln actually reversed two attempts at marital law proclamations attempted by both John Charles Freemont and David Hunter. Lincoln did not reverse these attempts so much because he was not for the emancipation process, but because in his legalistic mind, he knew that these courses of action would not stand the judicial test in regards to the limitations of the constitution. First of all, the use of the war powers in question would only be reserved for use by the commander-in-chief, namely himself; secondly there was no specifications provided within the constitution itself on the use of these war powers if hey did in fact exist. Lincoln was firm in his desire to convince the border states to accept his offer of compensated emancipation and aside from being denied time and again, he would continue to be convinced that given enough time and patience at the matter, that politicians in those states would see that the course of events leading to emancipation as inevitable and take the bait which he hoped would set off a chain reaction allowing other states to follow suit shortly there after. Though this plan eventually proved unworkable, it was not because of an unperceivable plan; Lincoln was not entirely prepared for the time restraints that unforeseen obstacles would pose in his attempt at being gradual. Between the defiant and incompetent military generals and the urging of different opinions in Washington, eventually his final course of action would be to take a gamble at using the war powers he was still uncertain and uneasy about and hope that with careful consideration, his document would not be challenged but gain support. Noting LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s wariness pertaining to the legality of his actions according to the constitution would lead us to the answer of the first of GuezloÃ¢â¬â¢s four questions. Why was the language of the proclamation so bland and legalistic? In contrast to the conclusions of many critics that Lincoln had no feelings of moral obligation or sympathy towards the slaves, Lincoln was greatly afflicted by the issue at hand. After understanding the caution which Lincoln was trained to proceed with as an attorney and even more so as the President of the United States, Lincoln had to ensure that every syllable, every phrase was written so that it could not be scrutinized within the federal court system. His document held the fate of the lives of millions of people within its wording and he did not want to have to be faced with the possibility that it would be retracted or revoked. Many also believe that the wording of the Emancipation Proclamation is so bland because Lincoln composed it grudgingly as a last resort. Guezlo points out that during LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s political career his presidency was not the first time that Lincoln had motivation for emancipation. In his term in Congress as an Illinois Representative he made similar attempts at compensated emancipation for slaves in the District of Columbia. Although these attempts never made it to the House, it is notable to recognize that his feelings towards emancipation stem back farther than having to make a pressured decision as Commander in Chief of a nation in rebellion. He was recorded as having been completely transparent in his belief that Ã¢â¬Å"If slavery is not wrong, then nothing is wrong. Ã¢â¬ Upon disclosing his decision to issue the proclamation to his cabinet it is also important to realize that Lincoln did not address his colleagues for advice whether or not to issue the proclamation as his mind was already made up, but rather to Ã¢â¬Å"hear the views of his associates and receive and suggestions. As defeated as he may have felt over not having had enough time to follow through with the compensation route, it is unarguable that Lincoln did not hold a deep conviction about what had to be accomplished before he left office. In intimate conversations with close colleagues he would comment on his conviction that this decision had been of Divine assistance and that Ã¢â¬Å"he had sometime thought that perhaps he might be an instrument in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s had of accomplishing a great work. In fact he openly expressed his agenda were there to be any concerns regarding the standing of his proclamation. Lincoln remarked that if there was to be a retraction or nullifying of the right of freedom to emancipated slaves through the courts that Ã¢â¬Å"it would not occur with him in officeÃ¢â¬ . The second question raised by critics that Guezlo seeks to shed some light on is whether or not the Emancipation Proclamation actually did anything. To answer this question, Guezlo moves to highlight the fact that although the Emancipation Proclamation had little immediate impact, it embraced the idea for the first time that there was a long term and permanent solution to the institution of slavery. Not only did it ring the bells of freedom for the slaves, but it also gave the Union an even more dignified reason to continue on with the war. Although the feeling was not unanimous amongst even some of the abolitionists of the day, the expected Ã¢â¬Å"mutinyÃ¢â¬ that was expected to result from those in the armed forces in protest of the proclamation was not as severe as couldÃ¢â¬â¢ve been predicted. As soon as more and more whites were exposed to former slaves they began to realize that this label of inferiority in both the mental and physical capacity was not as accurate as they had been led to believe. One Maine soldier admitted to his sister in a letter that, Ã¢â¬Å"instead of thinking less of a Negro, I have sadly learned to think better of them than many white men that hold responsible positions. Ã¢â¬ Among the newly freed black slaves came finally the feeling of attaining manhood through emancipation. With this feeling of manhood came the rallying of blacks willing and able to join the war effort as made eligible by the proclamation. The proclamationÃ¢â¬â¢s provision allowing blacks to enlist into the armed forces further secured the position of freedom in the eyes of the white man in the long term. For Ã¢â¬Å"how could we stand to see the Negro re-enslaved after demonstrating his allegiance to our Union with his blood? Ã¢â¬ asked one Union commander. In fact, not only was granting the slaves their freedom a major issue upon observing their willingness to loyally serve the military, but also the right of suffrage; although the move for social equality wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be addressed nearly as soon, the move to place more political power in the hands of the former slaves was introduced. LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s document would secure the way for future legislation which eventually would result in the complete abolition of slavery with the thirteenth amendment to the constitution. The proclamation also managed to avoid the mass deportation of freed blacks to Africa or South America as some abolitionists were in favor of. In addition to the effects nationally, the Emancipation Proclamation also helped gain a favorable opinion abroad throughout Europe for the United States transforming the civil conflict into a war against slavery ensuring that the Union would have nothing to fear from possible European recognition of the Confederacy. Did the slaves free themselves? Guezlo makes an important point when answering this question and the answer tends to be a bit more unexpected. Although the Emancipation Proclamation went into effect on January 1, 1863, it is surprising to understand that although the rejoicing of slaves upon receiving the news of emancipation was universal, more slaves than less remained put where they were waiting patiently for the Union soldiers to declare them free rather than run off to claim their freedom. But why stay put? According to his book, Guezlo remarks that even Abraham Lincoln himself was disappointed that more slaves had not taken it upon themselves to reach over to the other side of Union lines. Especially since he understood that with the upcoming perceived threat to his presidency from McClellan the only way he could ensure their emancipation was if they crossed Union lines before that threat could have a chance to materialize). One of the main reasons that more slaves did not readily embrace leaving their current positions was because of a fear that they would be returned to their masters just as they had heard many of the Ã¢â¬Å"contrabandsÃ¢â¬ had been refused by the military prior to the proclamation. Unfortunately the lack of trust slaves placed in the white ace extended not only to those who had kept them in bondage, but also to those whom they knew even less of. Guezlo quotes Ohio Congressman William Homan, who thought it odd as well that, Ã¢â¬Å"three and a half or four millions of Africans remain right in the hotbed of this rebellion, with your proclamations cast broadcast over the South inviting them to freedom; nay, your policy urged them to assert their freedom and pledges the nation to maintain it,Ã¢â¬ yet, Ã¢â¬Å"they have remained perfectly indifferent and passive until your Army has reached them, idle spectators of war. The quiescence of the black population actually turned out to becom e an argument in favor of the emancipation as it demonstrated the restraint and self control the slaves possessed even in the face of Ã¢â¬Å"easy bloody opportunityÃ¢â¬ . Francis Wayland in Atlantic Monthly concluded that Ã¢â¬Å"Nine-tenths of the able-bodied Southern population have been in arms for more than two years and the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s Emancipation Proclamation was made public nearly a year ago and yet none of the older men, women, and children remaining at home have been slaughtered, massacred or brutalized. Did Lincoln issue the Proclamation to ward off European influence or boost Union morale? This question seems to be LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s criticÃ¢â¬â¢s double edged sword, although a poor attempt might I add. Guezlo adds an interesting note that if morale or intervention were LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s primary concerns to be addressed, then issuing the proclamation when he did wouldÃ¢â¬â¢ve been the worst possible method he couldÃ¢â¬â¢ve taken to do so. Alexander Twining wrote in 1865 that, Ã¢â¬Å"European intervention Ã¢â¬â and especially from England Ã¢â¬â was, at the time when the proclamation was issued, our most anxious liability. LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s main concern was that the British would intervene in response to an emancipation proclamation so long as emancipation was seen as a Ã¢â¬Å"direct encouragement to servile InsurrectionsÃ¢â¬ , sparking the British governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s memories of the racial carnage of the Indian Mutiny. It was actually during the Chicago ministersÃ¢â¬â¢ delegation in September 1862 that any argument for European sympathy was made convincing Lincoln that the issuance of the proclamation may gain the Union any favor. Attempts to down play LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s motives for standing firm behind his proclamation with this attack are quickly debunked. The second part of this question implies that Lincoln made his decision for emancipation based off of some incentive of united sentiment that wouldÃ¢â¬â¢ve been received as a whole country. This could not be more false. When Lincoln initially issued the Emancipation Proclamation, politically, lines were torn across the board. Within congress debates ran heated and from state to state more and more republicans were loosing favor and being replaced with peace Democrats and proslavery advocates. When it came time for the next elections to congress, Lincoln was hurt to see his majority in the House weaken before his eyes. Lincoln and his supporters fully understood before they issued the proclamation that this would in fact place their positions in government in jeopardy. He also understood that with the military advocating their own desires to negotiate a peaceful compromise with the Confederacy, that this could easily convince them to accelerate an intervention placing LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s administration in danger of loosing the cause. Eventually LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s administration would prevail against slavery not only in the Confederate states but also in the Border States. Beginning with West Virginia in 1862, the Border States finally began to embrace the inevitable and took advantage of the only option that was advantageous for them which was to agree to the compensated emancipation package that Lincoln had been pushing for all along. In the end it was even difficult for LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s most radical abolitionist critics to remain skeptical of the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s personal conviction and determination regarding his motives with his Emancipation Proclamation. In a meeting with Frederick Douglas, LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s foremost freed black critic, Douglas was surprised to report that, Ã¢â¬Å"I was taken aback to discover that Lincoln had a deeper moral conviction against slavery than I had ever seen before in anything spoken or written by himÃ¢â¬ . Very few of the negative possibilities considered that could have taken place in response to the Emancipation Proclamation actually did. This was largely in part to the strict measures that Lincoln took as a skilled attorney and leader when drafting his plan and his determination to make the Proclamation succeed. During the time following the Emancipation Proclamation and even for years beyond his assassination, Lincoln was held in high esteem amongst the African American as well as the white population in this country. Unfortunately since the earlier 1900s many critics, both black and white, have risen to the occasion to minimize the greatness to which he impacted generations of human beings to come. Some claim Lincoln was a Ã¢â¬Å"white supremacistÃ¢â¬ only acting in the best interests of saving his country and others, at best, describe him as indifferent to the African struggle. Regardless of which position you try to understand, it is ridiculous to consider that, in either case, a man who felt no deep conviction for the nature of his actions wouldÃ¢â¬â¢ve remained persistent in his course to the conclusion. Had Lincoln really felt any other way than sympathetic towards the slaves he wouldÃ¢â¬â¢ve bowed down and compromised as many congressman and generals urged of him. Allen Guezlo makes his point strongly apparent; Abraham LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s actions spoke clearly of his the driving force behind his actions. Ã¢â¬Å"It would be special pleading to claim that Lincoln was in the end the most perfect friend black Americans have ever had, but it would also be the cheapest and most ignorant of all skepticisms to deny that he was the most significant. Ã¢â¬