Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Why Marco and Rodolfo came to America Essay Example

Why Marco and Rodolfo came to America Essay The play A view from the scaffold the creator, Arthur Miller, is introduced to the crowd as a catastrophe yet not a traditional, another, cutting edge disaster. I despite everything utilizes the components notable to old style disasters however then it is set in the docks of America where unlawful workers are normal to stow away. There are numerous social issues encompassing the play and the cutting edge catastrophe sort like the way that various societies treat equity; in America there are laws and any individual who breaks them goes to prison however these laws are not in every case adequate as Alfieri says on Eddies first visit to him the law is unmistakable, it doesn't manage each circumstance; The Sicilians treat equity by going rogue and settling the score in their own specific manner. The Sicilians showed up in America in any case to look for the American Dream of work, cash, welcome and trust in the individuals deserted back home. We will compose a custom article test on Why Marco and Rodolfo came to America explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom article test on Why Marco and Rodolfo came to America explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom article test on Why Marco and Rodolfo came to America explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer The class of present day disaster utilizes a hero, similar to old style catastrophes, as Eddie. Mill operator utilizes him to concentrate on the delicacy of human instinct, how people regularly don't have a clue about their own sentiments so can't perceive what they are fouling up: Eddie, when advised by Alfieri she needs to get hitched, Eddie. She cannot wed you, can she? , his answer of Whatre you talkin about, wed me! I dont recognize what the heck youre talkin about is resentful and the crowd sees that Alfieri has seen what Eddie simply doesn't see about himself. The shocking components used to make A View from the Bridge into a cutting edge disaster are taken from the old Greek old style catastrophes; there is a hero who has a grievous imperfection driven by enticement followed by a destruction; an impetus definitely impacts the result of the play; there is a chorale who offers remarks all through the play, notice the crowd of future happenings; the hero has destiny all through the play; the dramatization contains a fierce component; the crowd become engaged with the show as though they are truly there; after the activity, the crowd encounters purification going before quiet being reestablished into oneself. Mill operator likewise utilizes deplorable topics to go with the sad components previously utilized in the play. These topics are love, reliability, selling out, respect, retribution, envy and demise and through them is shown the two societies; one which used to be Sicilian however has been shaped after some time adjusting more to the American lifestyle yet at the same time established with Sicilian convictions; the other being totally Sicilian. Marco and Rodolfo primarily come to America to maintain a strategic distance from the downturn which was leaving numerous individuals without employments, cash or food. The time wherein the play was set, a downturn was upon Italy, the land in the south and Sicily was so useless there was hunger wherever as Marco portrayed my significant other she takes care of [the children] from her own mouth. Numerous Italians and Sicilians understood that so as to get cash for food, they would need to emigrate. Marco has a spouse and three youngsters, the more established one is debilitated in his chest. Marco came to America to get cash to convey to his better half and kids to pay for food and drug. Marco is energized when Eddie discloses to him how much cash he can procure in a year and he is edgy to send his better half cash: my significant other I need to send immediately perhaps twenty dollars.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Riordan Manufacturing Staffing Strategies Essay Example for Free

Riordan Manufacturing Staffing Strategies Essay One of the most troublesome difficulties an association can confront is the capacity to locate the correct workers to carry out the responsibility. A very much created staffing system can enable an association to wipe out issues before they start. A staffing system gives by and large direction on how an association manages staff. This can incorporate how the association relates to new staff, the kinds of individuals the association needs to staff, and how to hold them. When this system is settled on, the human asset office should construct a few strategies and methods to help the methodology. This paper will assess the enlistment and staffing methodologies and the lawfulness of the staffing procedures of Riordan Manufacturing. History of RiordanRiordan Manufacturing, Inc. is one of the business chiefs in the plastic infusion shaping field. Established by Dr. Michael Riordan, a science teacher, Riordan Manufacturing, Inc. is possessed by Riordan Industries which is viewed as a Fortune 1000 organization. The underlying focal point of the organization was on innovative work yet ventured into the creation of plastic drink holders. The organization has earned global praise for their imaginative plastic plans. Riordan Manufacturing central station is situated in San Jose, California where the innovative work is finished. The organization likewise has plants in Georgia, Michigan, and China. Enlistment Strategies PamStaffing Strategies PamLegal Compliance TracyConclusion TracyReferencesRiordan Manufacturing. (2007). Virtual Organization. Recovered on April 26, 2007from the World Wide Web: at ome002.htm

Tuesday, August 11, 2020

Office Communication Top Ten List Entry #8 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog

Office Communication Top Ten List â€" Entry #8 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog This is the eighth entry in our “Top 10? list for you to consider when communicating with our office and applying. Number 8 Familiarize Yourself with Expenses and Start searching for fellowhips/grants as soon as possible! Yes, there is no doubt about it, graduate school is expensive!   We will do as much as we can to educate you on financial options, but by far the number one thing you can do is to be diligent in searching for fellowships and grants.   Do not wait to search until you have applied, you should start the search long before applying.   Each applicant should follow the rule of five described here.   A great resource is our external fellowship database. Most of the information you need concerning the cost to attend is available on our Web site, such as cost of attendance, types of aid, scholarship information, and information specifically for international students.   Please do note that SIPA scholarships come from one general pool there is no different in the fellowship award process at SIPA for domestic and international students all students are equally considered no matter the country of origin.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Analysis Of Langston Hughes s Poem Essay - 707 Words

My choice is a Langston Hughes’s poem â€Å"Theme for English B† and â€Å"Mother to Son.† Both poems were written around the Harlem Renaissance Era. Both of the poem Hughes shares learning new things and using a creative language. His poems are empowering, it speaks from a creative mind. We should study my texts because of the cultural center for Africa-American: writers, artists, musicians, photographers, poets, scholars. The poem reflects the Harlem Renaissance era. The Harlem Renaissance was a name given to the cultural, social, and artistic explosion of African Americans. It took place around World War I. Harlem is located in New York City. This was a short time of our history but remember that a lot happened in Harlem during that time. Harlem was a cultural center for blacks; and many Black writers, artists, musicians, photographers, poets, and scholars moved to Harlem and created a very supportive community for these artists. The Renaissance unified jazz and blues, whites people became interested in Harlem and came to speakeasies, and couples danced .The Renaissance was more than a literary movement, it help revolutionize the idea of racial pride and political right. The Harlem Renaissance was a climax of our history; a period of rebirth and renewal. We all think differently of that time today. At that time African Americans were considered as second class citizen. In many places they had their own bathrooms separates from whites. They were treated as victims. There wereShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Langston Hughes s Poem I, Too978 Words   |  4 Pages Langston Hughes America, the ideals of freedom, equality, and opportunity traditionally held to be available to every American. This is what everyone was told, what the Declaration of Independence states. But, Langston Hughes a black American poet in the Harlem Renaissance period saw the truth. Being an African American in the United States during the early 1900’s was difficult. Many lived a life full of hardships; segregation, prejudice and economic hardships, viewed as second-class citizensRead MoreAnalysis Of Langston Hughes s Poem I 1679 Words   |  7 PagesPoem Research Paper Langston Hughes’s poem I, Too published in 1926 speaks at great length about the American identity: to be an American is an issue that transcends race, and all Americans should be treated equally. Writing from the perspective of an initially subservient African American, Hughes presents a story that begins in oppression and ends in triumph. A throwback to the prior institution of slavery, the setting of I, Too is confined to a single slave owner s house; yet, it paints an imageRead MoreAnalysis Of Langston Hughes s Poem, I, Too1193 Words   |  5 Pagestheir rights. Through the study of literature and history, the reader will learn that in certain circumstances, people will realize that they will have to fight and defend their rights against those who tries to take it away. In the poem, I, Too, Langston Hughes shows that to be an American means that you should refuse to buckle under awful pressures. The speaker, an African American man, was denied the rights to sit down at the dinner table when company comes. However, the speaker â€Å"laugh and eatRead MoreAnalysis Of Langston Hughes s Poem, Mother And Son1171 Words   |  5 PagesThe Splintered Staircase Life sometimes hits below the belt, life is not always easy. As Langston Hughes states in â€Å"mother and son life is not a crystal stair. With his brilliant writing, Hughes conveys to the reader to never giving up just because something is not easy (Langston2). In the poem â€Å"Mother to Son† by Langston Hughes. It seems that Langston Hughes wants the readers to understand that yeah life may be hard, but you have to get through it. One cannot give up just because things are notRead MoreAnalysis Of Langston Hughes s Poem Harlem Sweeties 2195 Words   |  9 Pages From â€Å"Mother to Son† to â€Å"Harlem Sweeties†, Langston Hughes uses various themes and poetic structures within his writing. Hughes writing style consisted of the black pride and strength of the black community that would later be considered as the â€Å"driving force† behind The Harlem Renaissance. His poems and short stories seemed to evoke a feeling of hopefulness, pride and self- realization. He wrote song lyrics, essays, autobiographies and plays however, his multi-dimensional style of writing consistedRead MoreAnalysis Of Langston Hughes s Poem Theme From English B 1592 Words   |  7 Pages What Lies Beneath Langston Hughes was an American poet who spent a majority of his life growing up in Cleveland, Ohio as well as Lincoln, Illinois. Hughes was able to travel across the states and to several different countries which allowed him to experience diversity and hardships like poverty and racial discrimination. His teenage years was around the time that he would start to write poetry. The poetry that he wrote throughout his life incorporated Black culture and revealed his deeper viewsRead MoreLangston Hughes The Weary Blues Analysis1256 Words   |  6 PagesOn Langston Hughes’s The Weary Blues Kevin Young, a graduate of Harvard University and one of the winners of the Guggenheim Fellowship, writes the historical perspective of Langston Hughes. He discusses the flowering of the African American literature and culture and how it is actually just the extension of the New Negro movement. From the Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes is able to represent â€Å"different things† for â€Å"different men.† The uprising of Hughes’s poems are the result of their hardshipsRead MoreAnalysis Of Mother To Son By Langston Hughes768 Words   |  4 PagesLanguage Arts ï ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Ã¯ ¿ ½Grade:ï ¿ ½ Six    Standard:ï ¿ ½ #3:ï ¿ ½ Literary Response and Analysis    Key Concept:ï ¿ ½ Students respond to tone and meaning that are conveyed in poetry through word choice, figurative language, line length, punctuation, rhythm, alliteration, and rhyme.    Generalization:ï ¿ ½ Students respond to poetic language in Mother to Son by Langston Hughes.    Background:ï ¿ ½ Students have been working on a poetry unit and have been studying how the elements of poetryRead MoreLangston Hughes : A Modernist1222 Words   |  5 PagesSappington 13 Apr. 2017 Langston Hughes: A Modernist Credited as being the most recognizable figure of the Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes played a vital role in the Modernist literary movement and the movement to revitalize African American culture in the early 20th century. Hughes’s poems reflect his personal struggle and the collective struggle of African Americans during this cultural revival. Langston Hughes’s life contained key influences on his work. As a child, Hughes witnessed a divorceRead MoreEssay about Analysis of Dream Deferred by Langston Hughes615 Words   |  3 PagesAnalysis of Dream Deferred by Langston Hughes Dreams are the driving force of America today. Every person has some sort of dreams and or goals. Although in life everyone has dreams and goals, there are obviously more struggles for some ethnic groups than for others. The poem, Dream Deferred, by Langston Hughes, is one mans expression of his dreams during a difficult time period. As a black man in a time period where African-Americans were considered an inferior group of people

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Depletion of Non Renewable Resources of Energy - 1422 Words

Introduction A non-renewable resource is a natural resource which cannot be produced, grown, generated, or used on a scale which can sustain its consumption rate, once depleted there is no more available for future needs. Also considered non-renewable are resources that are consumed much faster than nature can create them. Fossil fuels (such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas), types of nuclear power (uranium) and certain aquifers are examples. Natural resources such as coal, petroleum, oil and natural gas take thousands of years to form naturally and cannot be replaced as fast as they are being consumed. Eventually natural resources will become too costly to harvest and humanity will need to find other sources of energy. At present,†¦show more content†¦There are three forms of fossil fuels solid called coal, liquid called petroleum or oil, and gas called natural gas. Use of fossil fuels outnumbers the production and extraction of it which is used to power cars and factories. 90% of the U.S. s energy comes from oil. The solution is to use other sources of energy, but we already are too dependent on fossil fuel to back away from its usage. Fossil Fuels are the biggest cause of pollution in the world, producing soot and other harmful gases. It takes a million years to produce the amount of fossil fuels the people of earth use in a single year Energy can be drawn from the sun, water, and wind to produce a clean form of energy. Coal is a very clean source of energy. Energy also comes from biomass, electrical storage, and nuclear energy. Coal is a very good source of energy, but when it is burned it produces much more pollutants than any other fossil fuel. Coal-Coal depletion is the inescapable result of extracting and consuming coal since it is a nonrenewable natural resource. The number of years of coal left is estimated by the ratio of proven coal reserves to the current consumption rate. Assuming the current rate of consumption and that there are still an estimated 909 billion tones of proven coal reserves worldwide, there is enough coal to last at least 155 years (assuming the rate of consumptionShow MoreRelatedIndia s Energy Policy Of India1377 Words   |  6 PagesThe price of energy is increasing yearly. It is crucial for people to comprehend how every is very useful to them and how they can prevent it from getting wasted. Energy at home accounting in Calabasas will grow habitual practice of solutions to conserve the energy efficiency of their homes at the topmost level. Energy in India defines energy and electricity manufacture, depletion and importation in India. Energy policy of India designates the politics of India associ ated with energy. ElectricityRead MoreEnergy Costs687 Words   |  3 PagesEnergy costs There are various energy sources available in the world today. These are either renewable sources or non-renewable sources. Some of the non-renewable sources include coal, oil, and nuclear fuel while renewable resources are solar energy, wind power, biomass, geothermal wave and tidal power, hydropower and so on. Cost-supply and uncertainty are usually quite asymmetric when it comes to the energy industry and any other industry in the world. The paper will look at the future of energyRead MoreYou Can Choose Your Friends but Not Your Family Essay1637 Words   |  7 PagesA  renewable resource  is a  natural resource  with the ability to reproduce through biological or natural processes and replenished with the passage of time. Renewable resources are part of our  natural environment  and form our  eco-system. In 1962, within a report to the committee on natural resources which was forwarded to the President of the United States, Paul Weiss defined Renewable Resources as: The total range of living organisms providing man with food, fibers, drugs, etc....[1] Renewable resourcesRead MoreBenefits Of Non Renewable Energy788 Words   |  4 PagesNon-Renewable energy is the energy which is taken from the sources that are available on the earth in limited quantity and will vanish fifty-sixty years from now. Non-renewable sources aren’t friendly to the environment and can have serious impacts on people’s health. They’re called non-renewable because they can’t be generated again within a small amount of time. Non-renewable sources are existent in the form of fossil fuels, natural gas, oil and coal. Now, just like Renewable sources do, Non-RenewableRead MoreHuman Activity and Energy Sources968 Words   |  4 PagesEarth’s resources, for instance water, productive farming land and energy, outlines the basic foundations of our continued existence on earth. However, with the continued human activities, for example logging and charcoal burning, these resources are quickly being depleted. Human inhabitation and inc reased consumption of the natural resources is resulting in untold destruction. The climate change being experienced globally, the rapidly depleting freshwater catchments, the dwindling forest cover,Read MoreThe Natural Gas And Oil1425 Words   |  6 Pagesgas and Oil are in the middle of the most vital energy resource in India. The business is as well one of the major providers to the State treasuries and Central. Natural gas is friendly to nature, has far larger competence and is certainly cost in effect. With the developing depletion and increasing mandate there is no uncertainty that Natural gas is well thought-out to be the fuel of the 21st century. Since Forever, the Non-renewable energy resources have remained the focus of all most importantRead More The Impact of Buildings on the Environment Essay example653 Words   |  3 Pagesto ozone depletion and acid rain drips down upon us. The key source of all of these problems lies in our continually increasing use of non-renewable energy resources. Most of our electricity is created from fossil fuels and burning coal, and the emissions from these power plants are deadly to our environment in the long run. While development of new renewable energy resources is vital to our ability to protect the environment, in order to truly succeed, we must reduce our current energy use. Read MoreEe 3410 Experiment 41035 Words   |  5 Pagesconsonance between humans and their surroundings[1]. Experiment 4 focused on the different diode circuits and aimed to test EE 346 students’ knowledge of diode operation and improve their ability to measure and analyze different diode circuits. Energy Experiment 4 required multiple devices, a function generator, a multimeter, an oscilloscope, and a power supply, used simultaneously. Although an individual benchtop device consumes a negligible amount of power, (the 34410 A Digital Multimeter consumesRead MoreTypes Of Energy Resources Used All Over The World872 Words   |  4 PagesThere are many types of energy resources used all over the world. These can be classified as either renewable or non-renewable energy sources. Renewable sources are those that are found readily but do not face the possibility of depletion. These include solar, wind and hydroelectric energy sources. Non-renewable energy sources are found in the environment but can be depleted by overuse and these include natural gas, coal, and oil. Among the renewable energy sources, solar energy is the most commonlyRead MoreThe Most Important Aspect Of The Modern World Essay1332 Words   |  6 Pagesthe modern world is the technology that is advancing it. The capabiliti es of engineers regarding technology that keeps humanity alive or destroy it are the abilities in which engineers can harness and manipulate energy. The energy sources include both renewable and non-renewable resources and are the vital backbones of this modern world. The Industrial Revolution which took place in eighteenth century Great Britain acted as a sort of gateway to the discovery and usage of fossil fuels today (Industrial

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Study of Corporate Failures Free Essays

It is said that a company will only last if it practice good governance to its employees and customers providing them all of their needs and satisfying their expectations in terms of product quality and good management. This brings out a good working relationship between the management and employees that builds trust and loyalty among them which in the end will result in a favorable output contributing to the good name of the company. The reputation of a certain company has been always important for their marketing and growth. We will write a custom essay sample on A Study of Corporate Failures or any similar topic only for you Order Now Thus in order to have a good impression to the customer and employees, the company’s management tend to bring out the best that they can bring to give a good impression to their customers and people. Since good governance gives a harmonious working relationship between the management, employees and customers, people may seem to like the company more and as the days goes by, they might learn to ask more than the company can provide. The company may become bigger, but expectations will always be present from suppliers, customers and employees. Because of a higher demand for quality management, the top management of a company may do some changes to their usual managing practice to cope up to the demand that their company is facing like higher product outputs, client concerns, supply procurement and more. Change is always permanent. For companies, certain decisions must be done to acquire a certain expected result for the benefit of all but there are also some decisions that were made by the company which they think is the best strategy for a certain issue but only resulted to conflicts and problem. This paper’s aim is to give an insight of what a bad corporate management or governance is and its effect to a company, its employees, and their customers and to other business as well. We examine the different reasons why a company fail and the different things that a management can do to avoid it. Included also in the paper are some experiences of different companies that had gotten through bad management strategies and how they cope up from it. Introduction Change Management is one tool to measure the performance of the overall productivity of a company. If a kind of management strategy being implemented is not good to handle a company’s requirement, it is very obvious that it will cause problems in the end. As stated a while ago, competition is very tight in the market and demands are very high. This however, takes the management in a decision to take one step forward for improvements. Changing a workflow, product standards or even the salaries of employees are very crucial. If not monitored well, this may result to conflict and quality issues. Decision making has been a big task for managers to make new guidelines that will be followed in order to achieve a certain goal. Yearly, numerous meetings and agreements are being made by both top management and employees that change the usual work flow of the company that sometimes gives discomfort to other workers because of they are used of the usual work that they do. Aside from decision making, changes in the market demands, economy, quality expectations, information technology, business structure and manpower can give great pressure to the business. As change is permanent, the risk of managing a business gets sensitive as time goes by resulting complicated scenarios and threat of failure. Management Management is controlling a group of people to achieve a certain goal. In business, the top management is concerned in doing the most important decisions that are to be followed by all employees of the company including its policies and strategies. Because of the different issues that the business encounters, strategic decisions are made to solve the different problems that the company has. Hoping that those decisions would give a positive result in the end, the management is also responsible for any negative result that their decisions may give. Decision making is never easy. It takes a lot of patience, teamwork and courage to come up with a set of strategies that the company will use. Certain decisions are made for one department only and some are for the whole company. Either way, they still give a big effect to the overall performance of the organization. Since that decision making is very crucial, there are still some companies that made their way in doing and implementing the best decision strategies that helped their company to be the best that it can. On the other hand, not all companies shares the benefits of a good decision implementation as there are some companies that also shares the effect of a bad decision implementation made by their top management. Approach Governance Governing is a process of implementing decisions, rules and regulations in a group of people. Its concept has been widely used by companies to make their workers comply a set of agreed actions that were done and ordered by the management. The management’s ways of doing rules and policies has a big effect in a company’s performance as a whole. As decision making is vital to a company, the management should be equipped with the knowledge of how they are going to make their decisions every day. Study of Good and Bad Governance Good Governance Good governance will surely give benefits to the company, employees, customers and suppliers. Its implemented decisions had considered the characteristics of Participation, Rule of Law, Transparency, Responsiveness, Consensus Orientation, Equity and Inclusiveness, Effectiveness and Efficiency and Accountability that if complied well, it will bring good feedbacks and result to the company. Bad Governance Mismanagement has always been a problem in all companies which is a start of bad governance. Bad governance emerges when conflict rises among people who are involved in the company. It includes conflict of interest, political issues among members of the company, social problems, discrimination, lack of participation and more. When employees or the people concerned to the company starts to ask questions about the decision of the company’s management, then there is an unclear part in that certain decisions being implemented that employees do not understand or agreed. How to cite A Study of Corporate Failures, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

De Beers Consolidated Mine Ltd. free essay sample

As De Beers’ main distribution arm, CSO continued to influence market’s supply and demand, and to purchase other producing nations (excluding South Africa, Zaire, Namibia, Uni Soviet and Botswana) in order to control the market’s price. †¢Rough diamonds’ sales. CSO will held selling routinely, named †sight†, to sell its diamonds 10 times a year, thus CSO has a sole power to determine the quantity and the price for its diamonds. CSO has requirement to its sightholders to submit any information about their businesses (inventory and market) and the right to come for on-site audit.This function would help De Beers to maintain pricing stability further downstream. †¢Internal market intelligence group. Moreover, CSO maintained this function to understand the flow of diamonds through the pipeline and to monitor diamond inventories at each stage of distribution. They conducted an extensive consumer survey at least once every three years in each country that accounted 1% of the world’s demand for diamond jewelry, and every year in major markets such as USA. In the end, De Beers could simply adjust their quantity and mix the diamonds that it released. By these major functions of CSO, De Beers made outside competition nearly impossible, due to the fact that diamonds producers had to sign in exclusivity agreements with the CSO and majority of diamonds from mines would be sold to De Beers. De Beers, through CSO, was held monopoly power in the diamond industry. 2. How does that expanded economic pie end up getting divided among the various players in the diamond industry? Why? Through 1970s until 1980, there were several incidents which were threaten CSO and almost made DeBeers lose its â€Å"monopoly† power (prices and supply) in diamonds industry, as followed: †¢In the 1970s, the economic disruptions and high inflation had resulted to the speculative demand of diamonds. During this period, Israeli merchant hoarded diamonds in their inventory as investments, thus created a shortage and drove the prices up. De Beers no longer had control of the supply in the diamonds market, because once those hoards were disposed into ma rket, the quantity could increased and prices fall rapidly. On the supply side, Zaire felt that the terms they were given by the CSO fell below their expectations and had not renewed the contract with CSO in 1981 in the hope to recover their own sales on the free market. But because of its low-grade diamonds, Zaire was in no position to push the price upwards. Hence, unfortunately they were opted to return as De Beer’s supplier. †¢Another threat was coming from Australia’s mining, Argyle mine, which also confronted CSO in niche markets such as near-gem and industrial diamonds.They were insisted to operate in this market by generated its minerals’ production capacity more than 30 million by 1986 that the De Beers had never expected before. †¢External market conditions that made De Beers in the under pressure situation, such as an early 1980s recession, rising world interest rates, falling retail demand for diamond, speculation demand caused diamond prices plummeting, many members in the â€Å"sight† went bankrupted and liquidated their diamonds’ stock. 3. Should De Beers pull the plug on the CSO’s stockpiling strategy? Depending on your answer what specific actions would you recommend? . Stay the course, why? 2. Cut offtake, why? 3. Cut price, why? Our group suggested the CSO should pull away their stockpiling strategy, mainly because of the volatility of the diamonds industry and slumpy retail demand condition. Also, sooner or later this centralization strategy could be harmed and weaken De Beers when other threats unexpectedly happened, such as when new mining cartel was discovered thus changed the demand-supply system again, or when there was a nation’s internal problem (such as war, government law) that could weaken the partnership between both parties, and so on.Market demand constantly unpredictable, due to the dynamically changed of consumer’s need and environmental changes; demand for diamonds would be dropping at a time when demand for other luxury goods was increasing and shifting, such as gold, jade gems or cars. These events and situations would be abruptly changed the market share of De Beers and its control in diamond’s demand and supply.De Beers had to keep innovate their strategy to continuously respond the external environment, such as vertical integration on their business line. As we knew that CSO was only selling the rough diamonds to their sightholders and just controlling the flow of and its downstream channels, we suggested De Beers to make their own system from exploration, mining, production (cutting and polishing), distribution, and its jewelry retailer.This integrating system would effectively maintain its margin, decrease the transaction cost, and maximize the profit by leveraging their powerful retail brand directly to the consumer. Hence, De Beers should be opted and rearranged other strategies to focus on its brand, such as using highly effective advertising, as in the article written that De Beers had a relationship with two agencies in order to boost their selling network in the USA, N.W. Ayer, and outside the United States, J. Walter Thompson. This long-run campaign must be implementing continuously by De Beers to maintain their brand power in the market. Furthermore, emerging markets as the emerging demands must be reconsidered and included as an additional objective in De Beers’s strategy, since nowadays these markets economic have been growth rapidly and played the major role in the world economy.

Tuesday, March 24, 2020

AICPA Code of Conduct free essay sample

The AICPA, or the American Institute of CPAs, represents the accounting professionals in several countries. Like any other profession, there are some grey areas that without guidelines could create a mess. The AICPA has developed a code of professional conduct which serves three main purposes: define responsibility of accounting professionals, educate the public to protect the accounting professional, and educate the public to protect the public. Responsibility The AICPA Code of Professional Conduct says that certified public accountants have responsibilities to everyone who use their professional services. Unless you are an accounting professional, it is highly unlikely that you know all of the rules and regulations that must be abided by when it comes to bookkeeping, taxation and financial reporting. That’s what keeps the accounting profession running; they are the experts that the rest of the world turns to for accounting services. CPA’s must maintain a level of responsibility and follow ethical standards when performing these standards. We will write a custom essay sample on AICPA Code of Conduct or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It is the accounting professional’s responsibility to do what it right, even when it’s not the popular vote to protect themselves and their client. Public Education As mentioned earlier, not everyone’s an accounting guru. The AICPA Code of Professional Conduct lays out the guidelines and expected conduct for accounting professionals to follow. This assists in protecting the public by giving them resources and education to know what to expect out of their accounting professional. The AICPA Code of Professional Conduct sets a standard for all accounting professionals to abide by. This is not to say that there are not a few crooked individuals still out there, but hoping that all professionals follow the code, the public is in better hands. CPA Protection Lastly, the AICPA Code of Professional Conduct assists in protecting the accounting professionals. By laying out the responsibility, integrity and due care expectations of all CPA’s, it assists the CPA in standing up for what’s right. Situations may arise where a client attempts to bribe or bully an accounting professional into â€Å"fibbing† on financials to make their business look better than it is. But if the accounting professional abides by the AICPA Code of Professional Conduct, and makes their client aware of it, they have backing and support for doing the right thing. Closing The AICPA Code of Professional Conduct serves 3 major purposes: define responsibility, educate public, and protect the professional. The AICPA is a huge organization that reaches many people. The more individuals that are educated, the better chance of ethical business decision making. References AICPA-principles of professional conduct. (2013). Retrieved from

Friday, March 6, 2020

The Wade-Davis Bill and Reconstruction

The Wade-Davis Bill and Reconstruction At the end of the American Civil War, Abraham Lincoln wanted to bring the Confederate states back into the Union as amicably as possible. In fact, he did not even officially recognize them as having seceded from the Union. According to his Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction, any Confederate would be pardoned if they swore allegiance to the Constitution and the union except for high-ranking civil and military leaders or those who committed war crimes. In addition, after 10 percent of voters in a Confederate state took the oath and agreed to abolish slavery, the state could elect new congressional representatives and they would be recognized as legitimate. Wade-Davis Bill Opposes Lincoln's Plan The Wade-Davis Bill was the Radical Republicans answer to Lincolns Reconstruction plan. It was written by Senator Benjamin Wade and Representative Henry Winter Davis. They felt that Lincolns plan was not strict enough against those who seceded from the Union. In fact, the intention of the Wade-Davis Bill was more to punish than to bring the states back into the fold.   The key provisions of the Wade-Davis Bill were the following:   Lincoln would be required to appoint a provisional governor for each state. This governor would be responsible for implementing measures set out by Congress to reconstruct and state government.  Fifty-percent of the states voters would be required to swear loyalty to the Constitution and the Union before they could even begin creating a new Constitution through the state Constitutional Convention. Only then would they be able to begin the process to be officially be readmitted to the Union.  While Lincoln believed that only the military and civilian officials of the Confederacy should not be pardoned, the Wade-Davis Bill stated that not only those officials but also anyone who has voluntarily borne arms against the United States should be denied the right to vote in any election.  Slavery would be abolished and methods would be created to protect the liberty of freedmen.   Lincoln's Pocket Veto The Wade-Davis Bill easily passed both houses of Congress in 1864. It was sent to Lincoln for his signature on July 4, 1864. He chose to use a pocket veto with the bill. In effect, the Constitution gives the president 10 days to review a measure passed by Congress. If they have not signed the bill after this time, it becomes law without his signature. However, if Congress adjourns during the 10-day period, the bill does not become law. Because of the fact that Congress had adjourned, Lincolns pocket veto effectively killed the bill. This infuriated Congress. For his part, President Lincoln stated that he would allow the Southern states to pick which plan they wanted to use as they rejoined the Union. Obviously, his plan was much more forgiving and widely supported.  Both Senator Davis and Representative Wade issued a statement in the New York Tribune in August 1864 that accused Lincoln of attempting to secure his future by ensuring that southern voters and electors would support him. In addition, they stated that his use of the pocket veto was akin to take away the power that should rightfully belong to Congress. This letter is now known as the Wade-Davis Manifesto.   Radical Republicans Win in the End Sadly, despite Lincolns victory, he would not live long enough to see Reconstruction proceed in the Southern states. Andrew Johnson would take over after Lincolns assassination. He felt that the South needed to be punished more than Lincolns plan would allow. He appointed provisional governors and offered amnesty to those who took an oath of allegiance. He stated that states had to abolish slavery and acknowledge seceding was wrong. However, many Southern States ignored his requests. The Radical Republicans were finally able to get traction and passed a number of amendments and laws to protect the newly freed slaves and force the Southern states to comply with necessary changes.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Superstition & Science Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Superstition & Science - Essay Example Neville discovered that the infected beings possessed both the human and vampire-like characteristics and only came out after dawn (Matheson 17). The other characteristic trait was that they could be repelled using garlic. It became a constant battle of survival for this resourceful man who had to go against extreme odds to get what he aspired. At one point Neville captured Ruth, a creature possessing both human and vampire characteristics and one that could go out during the day. Neville’s reaction was that there was nothing eye-catching about them during the day (Matheson 30). Neville was suspicious as to whether Ruth was truly human as she portrayed herself adding to the fact that she was opposed to killing of vampires. Ruth and Neville soon became companion to a point where it developed into a relationship. On his quest to identify the cure for the disease, Neville and the readers discovered that Ruth’s blood samples were indeed infected. Ruth left Neville and revea led that she lived in colony of people who were infected and planned to rebuild their lives. Given that Neville had formed a habit of killing many of Ruth’s kind, he only seems to be in their way and had to be converted before he destroyed her people. The novel concludes by depicting the final thoughts of Neville before he was executed. Part 2: Argument Using the evidence put into play by Richard Matheson, in connection with the 1940s and 1950s timelines, it is clear that there were universal human fears among the American public in 1954. The fear could also be directly linked to the existing, cultural conditions and existing custom of individual identity. From the timelines given, year 1940 to year 1954, it is clear that the American public was fearful of the Cold War and the effects it had on individuals, their health and social aspects. Vampires represented American’s xenophobic fear which manifested with time and was made worse with the onset of a few films made in New York for entertaining the Elite. Hence, most Americans were not fully reassured that the vampire syndrome would come to an end. The sale of surplus war material in 1940s posed a serious risk to the lives of Americans who were at war with other nations. Vampire-like symptoms can be indirectly compared to American public’s fear of the devastating physical changes, illness and decreasing faculties when exposed to biological war materials that were used by their enemies. The public was fearful of loss of individuality as a nation. The manifestation of decaying being that still lingered in the world can be compared to the individual fear of being incapable of recognizing and preventing oneself from encountering pain and suffering that was inflicted once a loved one was lost in the war. The drinking of blood as depicted in Matheson’s book, page 10, of Vampires’ craving to drink Neville’s blood represented the public’s fear of re-occurring problems w hich surfaced during the Second World War. It reprieved the public off its financial and emotional aspects of life. The compelling universal fears manifested in an average American’s mind in 1942 and 1943 where there were atomic bombs being developed as a form of weapon. This may be compared to the views of Americans in regard to Vampires in the society. When the world war two occurred, most countries were affected on a global scope and so was Neville’

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Television Media Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Television Media - Term Paper Example The last nineteen twenties saw the first successful experimentations of the electronic television. Designed by Philo Taylor, who had a vision of inventing a system that captured moving images that could be coded and transmitted onto a screen, it was a great success. The first image transmitted was a simple line and the dollar sign which he captured with a primitive camera. RCA, which dominated the radio business in the United States, invested fifty million dollars into the development of the television set. The company hired Vladimir Kosma to hasten the development and in nineteen thirty nine RCA televised the launching of the New York Fair. It included a speech by President Roosevelt who became the first head of State to be on television. The first television sets RCA sold had five by twelve inch picture tubes and broadcasted regular programs. This included televising of the first baseball game. The game was between Columbia and Princeton universities. The Second World War slowed down the development of television but by the nineteen fifties there was a growth in television stations and most homes in the United States could receive broadcasts. NBC and CBS were among the first stations and they aired news and programs such as â€Å"The Jack Benny Show† between nineteen fifty and nineteen sixty five (Angelova, 2011). Through the decades there was great development in the television set and soon the tubes had bigger screens with clear imaging. More television stations came up and the television industry became a major industry in the United States. Television programs made individuals everyday figures in people’s homesteads. Television was able to create a new type of hero; television and film stars, musicians and news anchors. The television made the conveying of news not on in the United States but across the world easy. Today, the television has come a long way and we have multi-billion dollar companies like Sony and Samsung who

Sunday, January 26, 2020

The Primary Music Curriculum Education Essay

The Primary Music Curriculum Education Essay My research is based on the primary music curriculum and about the teaching between the music specialists and the classroom teachers. I collected many data from books, articles, from an observation in a school and from my experience as a student who I was. To start with in the late nineteenth century the educational forum, the National Education Association, included a music section which music was recognised to be in the primary education (Jones and Robson, 2008). When then the National curriculum was determined it was compulsory for all the children in primary schools to attend the music curriculum which was a supplemented part of the school curriculum. In the music curriculum the three main musical skills are performance, listening and composing. Through the performance the children will be able to practice their voices in singing parts and perform different songs in their instruments. Through the listening they will be able to develop their audibility by hearing different sounds and songs and experiment with these. Also through the composing they will be able to develop their creativity and make different music patterns using some musical ideas. The primary music curriculum represented in key stage 1 which is the years 1 and 2 and key stage 2 which is the years 3 to 6. In key stage 1 the children should be able to recognise and identify musical materials and use them to describe an atmosphere or a dramatic situation (Swanwick, 1992). In this age the children start study music with so simple and interesting methods. Moreover during key stage 1 the children listen carefully and respond physically to a wide range of music. Also they play different instruments and they sing songs from memory using their fantasy (The national curriculum for England, 1999, p. 16). They experiment with simple musical instruments like recorder and some percussion and learn the songs with a specific way in order to remember the lyrics and make some movements. The children also learn the difference between the melody and the rhythm and how to experiment with these in their own compositions. As Swanwick (1992, p. 16) states the children in key stage 2 should be able to distinguish melodic and rhythmic devices found in songs and instrumental pieces and try to use them. During key stage 2, the children sing songs and play instruments with increasing confidence, skill and awareness of their own contribution to a group or class performance. Also they can improvise their own musical compositions and explore their thoughts and feelings for music from different cultures (The national curriculum for England, 1999, p. 18). The aim of the music curriculum is to make the children acquire some useful knowledge and also to feel confident and independent. For example the children until the end of year 2 in key stage 1 will learn to sing with a sense of the shape of the melody and perform simple melodic or rhythmic patterns keeping to a steady pulse (Music Teachers guide, 2000). By the end of year 4 in key stage 2 the children are able to perform different rhythmic patterns again but now with some notes included and also to improve their own compositions. Moreover until the end of year 6 in key stage 2 again, the children will learn to recognise the relationship between the sounds and perform by ear and from simple notations. Also they will have the opportunity to describe or characterise different kinds of music that they listen to with music vocabulary (Music Teachers guide, 2000). The music specialist has of course more knowledge in music than the classroom teacher, because he studied it and he made music training for many years in order to be worthy to teach to the students anything about music. This is also supported by Steinel (1990), who notes that certified music specialists have spent a minimum four years plus several precollegiate years training in music (Byo, 1999, p. 113). According to Hoffer (1961, p. 46), music specialist must be the leader in the classroom due to his advantage that he completed high music training. In my view it is a bit unfair the music specialist to be in a lower stage than the classroom teacher, because they do not have the same level in music knowledge. The music specialist is better to design the structure of the music lesson according to his own knowledge as he knows to organise it better from his experiences. This is also supported by Hoffer (1961, p. 46) who states that without the structuring efforts of the specialist no r eal musical progress will take place throughout the school. Through this, he wants to tell us that music specialist is very important for the music in schools, because he is the most suitable to organise an effective music lesson with a good structure. Moreover the music specialist is more able to teach some instruments to the students due to the knowledge and his experience that he has from his music training. As Hope and Lehman (1995) note, music specialists receive comprehensive training in music performance and theory (Byo, 1999, p. 114). So through the performance aspect, the music specialists can experiment with different instruments and be familiar with them in order to be able to teach them to the students with a good teaching method. Also if there are music specialists at primary schools the lessons will operate with more confidence and the students will understand better the meaning of music and acquire abilities and knowledge in everything; playing instruments, singing, about the history and theory of music through teachers experience and abilities. As Hennessy (1998) also states, music teachers with many years training are very important in primary schools for their specialist skills and knowledge, because they give mor e emphasis to the curriculum and they follow it on the right way. It seems that music specialists can follow exactly the curriculum without change something and accomplish to deliver it effectively, because they are expert in it and they also know what teaching methods have to use and when each one. According to Picerno (1970) the classroom teachers feel they can teach to the students about the music literature, some songs and plan a program for the music lesson. Also the classroom teachers feel that they cannot teach about conducting, music theory and music history and it is better the music specialists to teach these skills. (Picerno, 1970). I agree with this statement, because the classroom teachers do not have so high standards as music specialists in order to be able to teach the music in depth. They can just teach simple elements in music such as different kinds of songs and activities which have also help from Music Express scheme. Music Express scheme is a guide for non-specialized teachers in order to have help on what they can teach and how. Through the observation, I noticed that the classroom teachers learn from different readings and guides and then teach just the basic from the music curriculum. Hoffer (1961) notes that some persons believe that classroom teachers are able to teach at least some important things about the music curriculum, but they need the help of the specialists with some workshops and advices. According to Gamble (1988, p. 26) the classroom teachers provide the fundamentals of learning that students use later throughout their lives. This is right but I think it is apply just if the classroom teachers have help and support from a music specialist to give them some important guidance. Also Hoffer (1961, p. 45) states that some experiences have shown that classroom teachers even with the workshops, they cannot teach single-handedly a completely satisfactory music lesson. In my view Hoffer is right and not the people, because it is logical that it is impossible for the classroom teachers to know everything about the music curriculum, because many years of experience are required and also further knowledge in music education especially practical in a universit y or a college. Nevertheless there are some classroom teachers that wish not to teach music which is natural and they do it just because it is in their obligation to be able to teach all the subjects. In this case it seems that these teachers cannot teach music with success, because every teacher must like and find interesting the subject that he teaches in order to make the students also to be interested and concentrated on it. In contrast with music specialists who like to teach music and this is implicit and also this is the proof that they study it so many years and they teach it with so affection. This is also supported by Hoffer (1961, p. 45) who notes that some classroom teachers have extra music training and are proficient in teaching the subject but some others have no ability or interest in teaching music. This means that some classroom teachers may have the music knowledge that a music specialist has and some others may have anything, because they do not like to accomplish with this subje ct. Moreover Rainbow (1971, p. 1) states that the teacher who teaches music must be able to infect his students with his enthusiasm. So the teacher must like music in order to be able to teach it to the students effectively and also to take out his feelings about music and make the students to feel the same. Both Hoffer and Rainbow mention the same statement and it seems to agree with my own view; that if the students see their classroom teachers during the music lesson to express a bad feeling about music or that they do not want to teach it, then the students will ignore the lesson and will not be interested. But with music specialists this will not happen, because they all like music and teach it with very enthusiasm. Classroom teachers it seems that due to the non-training about music education who have, feel that they cannot teach music and they have lack of confidence. They do not know if they teach on the right way or not and if the students are able to understand what he teaches them. This is also supported by Jeanneret (1997, p. 37) who notes that from a research that she did in some countries like Australia, Great Britain and North America, the classroom teachers are responsible to teach music in their classrooms and they have a negative attitude towards music and lack of confidence to teach it. In my view a good point for the classroom teachers to teach music is that they know better the students; their character, their preferences because they are all the day together and they can teach them better regarding their interests. This is also supported by Mills (2005) who notes that the students can learn more things by a classroom teacher who knows them will rather than a teacher who is expert in music, but he does not know how the students work and their personalities. So this is a disadvantage for the music specialists who see the students just once a week and they cannot come close enough to them in order to know what they like to listen or how each student like to work. According to Hoffer (1961, p. 45) if the classroom teachers do not contribute in the music lesson, then the music program will become detached from the rest of the school curriculum. From that angle, he is right, because all the subjects are taught from classroom teachers and if the teachers leave out music is like ignoring music as a subject or considering music as a subject of less importance. According to Hennessy (1998), classroom teachers think that they cannot teach music, because they have no background in music education and they cannot read music. Hennessy (1998, p. 14) also mentions that these teachers usually have the abilities to play by ear, improvise and accomplish better with pop, folk or jazz styles. Personally I find my self disagree with this, because the classroom teachers are not in the position to teach music so well, if they do not have just a bit background of music education or if they do not attend a music workshop before. It seems these to be important, because they have to receive the main elements of music and some good teaching methods in order to be able to deliver the music curriculum to the students and have a successfully music lesson. According to an Ofsted report (Making more of music: Improving the quality of music teaching in primary schools, 2009, p. 3) the classroom teachers are able to provide a good music teaching when they are suppor ted effectively. It seems that the author wants to states that if the classroom teacher has help and useful guides from the music specialist, then he will be able to teach music well. This is a difference between a classroom teacher and a music specialist. The music specialist can teach music curriculum alone with his own mind, experiences and knowledge, but the classroom teacher needs a support to be able to starts and complete his teaching. Mills (2005, p. 28) notes that good teaching leads to students learning. By this, she wants to tell us that there is no importance if the teacher that teaches music has a music degree; if is the music specialist or the classroom teacher. The most important is that anybody from these teachers who teach music must do it very effective. According to Hennessy (1998) the classroom teachers are able to teach until year 4, because the music curriculum is easier to teach it at this stage, but in years 5-6 the music specialists are more able to teach it, because it is more complicated and more musical experience is required. The classroom teachers are able to teach during the beginning years, because except from a music guide to help them, they can also experiment easier and simple with the teaching and also using their fantasy. In later years this is difficult, because the standards go up and the music curriculum has more challenges towards the teacher. So a music specialist is more necessar y to teach it, because he can infect to the students his music knowledge through his experiences and his abilities to the music activities. To conclude, my own view is that music specialists can teach music more effectively than the classroom teachers at primary schools due to their experiences, their skills, their knowledge, their music training courses and the confidence they feel when they make in practice all of these. They know how to organise the music lesson better and how to teach each part of the lesson such as the performance, the listening and the composing in order to have a formative lesson and the students to be interested and familiar with music. Nevertheless I believe that the classroom teachers if they have a bit background about music and with the help of music guide, they will be able to teach music as well but until an extent. This is because they have the advantage that they know the students very well and they teach them based on the general progress of the students and they also help each student separately to improve his skills. Personally when I was a child in primary school my teacher was a music specialist and I gained a lot from her. That is why I believe that music specialists can teach music very effectively. She helped me to acquire the fundamental things which I had to know in music in that age and also to be interested in music. She taught me how to play some instruments, to sing, to learn some important elements of music such as the rhythm, notation, melody and different others. She did not know me and the other students very well, because she was seeing us just two days per week, but she was able to teach us music and also all the students were attend the lesson very carefully. Of course I am not sure if this happens with all the music specialists. As I mentioned above some authors state that this happen with the classroom teachers and that is an advantage for them to teach music better. So I think it is depends on the character of the teacher if he/she can teach music well and from his teaching m ethods except from his knowledge about music and not if he is a music specialist or not. The most important is the teacher; either the music specialist or the classroom teacher to transmit to the students his love and interest about music in order the students to be able to participate easier in the music lesson. All the weight and the organisation of the lesson is based on the teacher, because it depends on him if the lesson will be effective or not.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

John Irving, a prayer for owen meany Essay

In the first chapter of A Prayer for Owen Meany, John Irving displays an expansive, articulate style that relies heavily on rich descriptions to create detailed portraits of the New England of his youth, especially the title character who inspires him to believe in God and Christ. Irving’s language throughout the chapter is articulate and his sentences long, perhaps to accommodate his rather abundant, detailed descriptions; it is almost oratorical without being florid or long-winded, reflecting the fact that the narrator is descended from a prominent New England family (including the Puritan minister for whom he is named). He also relies heavily on memories, moving from his recollections of Owen to broader discussions of his own family and hometown, creating a context for the subsequent action and thus giving his memories a deeper meaning. In addition, Irving uses Owen as a symbol of Christ-like divinity – the boy is something of a martyr for his suffering (indeed, he never tells on his peers for their abuses), and yet he takes away the narrator’s mother, however unintentionally, by hitting the foul ball that kills the narrator’s mother (hence the chapter’s title, â€Å"The Foul Ball†). Irving avoids sounding childish by using articulate adult language, but he conveys a child’s point of view by speaking in a matter-of-fact way about how he and his peers picked on the frail, undersized Owen. He conveys no immediate judgments or apologies for his actions (indeed, as a child he feels no shame for it), and he does not analyze his motivations. For example, when Owen offers a surprisingly mature complaint about church services, the narrator says, â€Å"To these complaints, and others like them, I could respond only by picking up Owen Meany and holding him above my head† (Irving 23), showing how other children are unable to comprehend Owen. He also implies adults’ stupidity by mentioning his oblivious Sunday school teacher and how the police chief and coach quarrel over the ball after his mother’s death. The author wants the reader to understand his world (hence the detailed discussions of his town, family, and relationship with Owen) and especially Owen’s complex role in it. Though he mentions his Christianity at the very start, the narrator does not preach or scold the reader, admitting that he is a rather lazy Christian but also making clear that he feels deeply indebted to him (despite Owen’s role in his mother’s death) and makes the reader feel sympathy for the victimized Owen. Irving’s language is richly descriptive without becoming tedious, and he recalls Owen’s characteristics humorously, especially his diminutive size and high-strangled voice (Owen’s words always appear in capitals). Irving communicates respect for Christianity, but not for the ritual or doctrine – he admits his laziness and calls his approach â€Å"a church-rummage faith† (Irving 2). Instead, he believes in the divine power channeled through Owen, whose intelligence and deep understanding of God set him apart from his peers. Irving implies that both the narrator and New England, despite their Puritan past, find religion uninspiring until Owen appears, and that Owen has vastly more potential to influence events than is shown in the first chapter. More explicitly, he evokes New England’s provincial values, especially the split between insiders (the descendants of Puritans, like the narrator) and outsiders (later arrivals, like Owen’s Irish-Catholic family), and Irving contrasts the region’s harsh religious past with the narrator’s spiritual barrenness, for which Owen ultimately becomes a remedy. In the book’s first chapter, Irving shows the reader a rich picture of his characters’ world, creating the context in which the narrator’s transition from nonbeliever to Christian occurs. He presents Owen in a sympathetic light, as a wise yet victimized figure whose suffering and kindness bring enlightenment into a milieu that needs it. Irving, John. A Prayer for Owen Meany. New York: Ballantine, 1989.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Divine Command Theory, Objectivism, Diversity and Dep Theses

1. Explain what is meant by saying that a value is intrinsic? How are instrumental values related to intrinsic values? A value is said to be intrinsic if an object has the value for its own sake or because of its nature. A value is said to be instrumental if it aids in achieving or acquiring something with intrinsic value. For example, one’s job could have instrumental value in that it acquires money. Furthermore, money could have instrumental value in that it can provide objects from which one derives happiness or pleasure, something with intrinsic value.Objects or activities with instrumental value typically aid in acquiring things with intrinsic value. 2. According to the Divine Command Theory (DCT), does God command what he commands because it is intrinsically good; or is what God commands â€Å"good† because it is God who commands it? The Divine Command Theory suggests that what God commands is â€Å"good† because He commands it, but this view is not necessa rily valid. According to the DCT, â€Å"goodness† is equated with â€Å"God-willed,† suggesting that the commands of God are â€Å"good† because they are His commands.A statement such as â€Å"God is good† becomes redundant and illogical if â€Å"good† is equated with â€Å"God-willed. † It would be more logical to think that God’s commands have intrinsic goodness since atheists and other nonbelievers can identify with some moral foundation. An atheist might choose to believe that God was correct in saying that â€Å"killing is wrong† not because he believes in God’s word but rather he believes that the rule is intrinsically good. 3. According to the Divine Command Theory why should we obey the moral law?According to the Divine Command Theory, we should obey the moral law because it is the word of God. The DCT suggests that â€Å"morally right† means â€Å"willed by God,† so acting in compliance with moral law is essentially synonymous with acting in compliance with the word of God. Since God determines the moral law, no other reason is required for us to obey. 4. Explain why the DCT logically makes morality arbitrary. Why is arbitrariness a problem for morality? The Divine Command Theory suggests that morally â€Å"right† simply means willed by God.If something is morally â€Å"right† based solely on what God determines, an unsettling arbitrariness arises out of His commands. It would seem that God could just as easily make seemingly â€Å"immoral† acts â€Å"moral† (i. e. rape, genocide). The problem with arbitrariness is that it makes the development of a deeper, more appreciative morality absolutely impossible. An example can be made out of the story of Joshua and the battle at Jericho. If we are to believe that God determines what is morally â€Å"right† and â€Å"wrong,† then we believe that Joshua was just in slaughtering the men, women , and children because it was God’s command.In this scenario, this belief prevents the development of a moral understanding that murder is wrong, a severe problem for morality. 5. Define and explain Ethical Relativism, Ethical Absolutism, and Ethical Objectivism. Ethical relativism is the idea that moral â€Å"right† and â€Å"wrong† are defined within a society/culture or by an individual. The difference between society (conventional ethical relativism) and an individual (subjective ethical relativism) defining morality is very clear. Subjectivists hold that individuals are allowed to define what is â€Å"right† or â€Å"wrong,† but this would suggest that criminals (i. . murderers, cannibals, rapists) are correct and morally â€Å"right† when they engage in their crimes, since no one can ever be wrong. Conventionalists would hold that a society or culture is left to define moral â€Å"right† and â€Å"wrong. † However, it wou ld allow for any group to declare their ideals â€Å"right† or â€Å"just,† suggesting that groups with â€Å"immoral† ideals (i. e. congregations of rapists, murderers, etc. ) would be just as morally â€Å"right† as pro-life activists. Ethical absolutism holds that fundamental, absolute moral â€Å"right† and â€Å"wrong† exist and must not be defied by anyone, regardless of context.However, the ethical objectivist believes that there exists a universal morality relevant to all people and cultures, but with context taken into consideration. For example, the ethical absolutist would believe that a mother stealing medicine to help her sick child is wrong because the bottom line is that stealing is wrong. However, the ethical objectivist would hold that the mother’s reasoning was sound and that her moral obligation to help her child overrides her moral duty to the law. 6.Explain how the â€Å"Diversity Thesis† together with the â€Å"Dependency Thesis† logically imply the conclusion that Ethical Relativism is true. Then, give at least two arguments against ethical relativism. Are there reasons to believe that there are some objective values that apply in any society? The Diversity Thesis is an anthropological fact stating that moral â€Å"right† and â€Å"wrong† vary amongst different societies, so there are no fundamental or universal morals held by all societies. The Dependency Thesis states that what is morally â€Å"right† and â€Å"wrong† is dependent upon what the society defines as right and wrong.If both of these hold true, and conventional ethical relativism is described by a society in which moral â€Å"right† and â€Å"wrong† are defined within the society, then the connection is clear. The Diversity Thesis coupled with the Dependency Thesis entail the conclusion outlined in conventional ethical relativism. There are a number of arguments to be ma de against the idea of conventional ethical relativism. For example, some cultures view their women as inferior to men, withholding basic rights (and in some cases, inflicting genital mutilation).While this may be seen by a majority of the society as acceptable, it is often argued that the disregard for human rights is immoral. The ethical relativist would argue that the society is right in doing whatever it collectively thinks is right. In this case, and in many more, it is clear that the society is not always correct in defining moral â€Å"right† and â€Å"wrong† by its own standards. Additionally, the ethical relativist might argue that the pro-slavery movement in early America was morally sound because the society thought that what they were doing was morally â€Å"right. The notion that slavery is wrong is now more widely accepted, but a glimpse not too far into our country’s past would prove otherwise. This is an obvious example of why ethical relativism is incorrect and can inadvertently allow immorality to be permissible. It is sound to think that the value of human life is an objective value relevant to all societies. While it may be recognized to varying degrees in different parts of the world, it is safe to acknowledge human life as something to be universally valued by all societies.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Five Theories on the Origins of Language

What was the first language? How did language begin—where and when? Until recently, a sensible linguist would likely respond to such questions with a shrug and a sigh. As Bernard Campbell states flatly in Humankind Emerging (Allyn Bacon, 2005), We simply do not know, and never will, how or when language began. Its hard to imagine a cultural phenomenon thats more important than the development of language. And yet no human attribute offers less conclusive evidence regarding its origins. The mystery, says Christine Kenneally in her book The First Word, lies in the nature of the spoken word: For all its power to wound and seduce, speech is our most ephemeral creation; it is little more than air. It exits the body as a series of puffs and dissipates quickly into the atmosphere... There are no verbs preserved in amber, no ossified nouns, and no prehistorical shrieks forever spread-eagled in the lava that took them by surprise. The absence of such evidence certainly hasnt discouraged speculation about the origins of language. Over the centuries, many theories have been put forward—and just about all of them have been challenged, discounted, and often ridiculed. Each theory accounts for only a small part of what we know about language. Here, identified by their disparaging nicknames, are five of the oldest and most common theories of how language began. The Bow-Wow Theory According to this theory, language began when our ancestors started imitating the natural sounds around them. The first speech was onomatopoeic—marked by echoic words such as moo, meow, splash, cuckoo, and bang.   Whats wrong with this theory?Relatively few words are onomatopoeic, and these words vary from one language to another. For instance, a dogs bark is heard as au au in Brazil, ham ham in Albania, and wang, wang in China. In addition, many onomatopoeic words are of recent origin, and not all are derived from natural sounds. The Ding-Dong Theory This theory, favored by Plato and Pythagoras, maintains that speech arose in response to the essential qualities of objects in the environment. The original sounds people made were supposedly in harmony with the world around them. Whats wrong with this theory?Apart from some rare instances of sound symbolism, theres no persuasive evidence, in any language, of an innate connection between sound and meaning. The La-La Theory The Danish linguist Otto Jespersen suggested that language may have developed from sounds associated with love, play, and (especially) song. Whats wrong with this theory?As David Crystal notes in How Language Works (Penguin, 2005), this theory still fails to account for the gap between the emotional and the rational aspects of speech expression. The Pooh-Pooh Theory This theory holds that speech began with interjections—spontaneous cries of pain (Ouch!), surprise (Oh!), and other emotions (Yabba dabba do!). Whats wrong with this theory?No language contains very many interjections, and, Crystal points out, the clicks, intakes of breath, and other noises which are used in this way bear little relationship to the vowels and consonants found in phonology. The Yo-He-Ho Theory According to this theory, language evolved from the grunts, groans, and snorts evoked by heavy physical labor. Whats wrong with this theory?Though this notion may account for some of the rhythmic features of the language, it doesnt go very far in explaining where words come from. As Peter Farb says in Word Play: What Happens When People Talk (Vintage, 1993): All these speculations have serious flaws, and none can withstand the close scrutiny of present knowledge about the structure of language and about the evolution of our species. But does this mean that all questions about the origin of language are unanswerable? Not necessarily. Over the past 20 years, scholars from such diverse fields as genetics, anthropology, and cognitive science have been engaged, as Kenneally says, in a cross-discipline, multidimensional treasure hunt to find out how language began. It is, she says, the hardest problem in science today. In a future article, well consider more recent theories about the origins and development of language—what William James called the most imperfect and expensive means yet discovered for communicating a thought.