Monday, September 30, 2019

Qualitative Analysis of Anions Essay

The objective of this experiment was to use qualitative analysis to determine the chemical characteristics of four known anions by systemic confirmatory testing. The chemical characteristics observed were to be used to identify an unknown sample. Sulphuric acid was to be added to a carbonate solution and an effervescent reaction would confirm the presence of carbonate anions. Another sample of carbonate solution was to be reacted with hydrochloric acid and the gaseous product was to be reacted with a suspended drop of barium carbonate. The presence of clouding in the droplet would also confirm the presence of carbonate anions. Silver nitrate was to be added to chloride solution and the formation of a white precipitate, silver chloride, would confirm the presence of chloride anions. Ammonium hydroxide would be added to dissolve part of the precipitate. The resultant supernatant solution was to be decanted and re-acidified with nitric acid to reform the precipitate and definitively confirm the presence of the chloride anion. Silver nitrate was to be added to iodide solution and the formation of a yellow precipitate, silver iodide, would confirm the presence of iodide anions. Another sample of iodide solution was to be reacted with drops of acetic acid until sufficiently acidic. Potassium nitrate was to be added to the solution causing a colour change. Methylene chloride was to be added to this sample and shaken to confirm the presence of iodide anions by forming two separate and differently coloured layers. A barium chloride-calcium chloride mixture was to be added to sulphate solution and heated to 90oC. The sample was to stand for a period of time to allow the formation of a  white precipitate, barium sulphate, confirming the presence of the sulphate anion. The addition of hydrochloric acid and subsequent heating were to have no effect on the presence, further confirming the presence of sulphate anions. MATERIALS AND METHODS EQUIPMENT CHEMICALS Test tubes Carbonate Solution, Test tube rack Concentrated Sulphuric acid, H2SO4 Eye dropper 6M Hydrochloric acid, HCL Graduated pipette Barium hydroxide solution Ba(OH)2 Pipette bulb Chloride solution, Cl- Pasteur pipette Iodide solution, I- Beaker 0.1M Silver nitrate, AgNO3 Thermometer Concentrated Ammonium hydroxide, NH4OH 6M Nitric acid, HNO3 6M Acetic acid. HC2H3O ­2 Potassium nitrate, KNO2 Methylene chloride solution, CH2Cl2 Sulphate solution, Barium chloride-Calcium chloride mixture, BaCl2-CaCl2 Unknown Sample 7 SAFETY Carbonate solution is hazardous in case of skin contact (sensitizer, irritant), of eye contact (irritant), inhalation (lung irritant), and ingestion. It should be kept in a cool, well-ventilated area. In case of spill, use appropriate tools to put the spilled solid in a convenient waste disposal container and neutralize the residue with a dilute solution of acetic acid. Hydrochloric acid is very hazardous in case of skin contact (sensitizer, corrosive, irritant, permeator), eye contact (corrosive, irritant), of inhalation (lung sensitizer, respiratory tract irritant), and ingestion (toxic). It should be kept in a dry container, kept away from oxidizing agents, organic materials, metals, alkalis, and moisture. In case of spill, dilute with water and mop with an inert dry material. Residue should be neutralized with dilute sodium carbonate. Chloride solution is hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant, permeator), of eye contact (irritant), ingestion, and inhalation (irritant). In case of spill, dilute with water and mop with an inert dry material and spread water on the contaminated surface. Iodide solution is lightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, and inhalation. In case of spill, use appropriate tools to put the spilled solid in a convenient waste disposal container. And spread water on the contaminated surface. Silver nitrate is very hazardous in case of skin contact (corrosive, permeator), of eye contact (irritant), of inhalation, and ingestion.. Silver nitrate kept away from heat, sources of ignition, and combustible material. In case of spill, use appropriate tools to put the spilled solid in a convenient waste disposal container. Ammonium hydroxide is very hazardous in case of skin contact (toxic, corrosive, irritant, permeator), eye contact (irritant), inhalation (toxic to upper respiratory tract), and ingestion (toxic). Water should never be added to ammonium hydroxide and it should be kept a way from incompatibles such as metals, acids. In case of spill, dilute with water and mop with inert dry material. Neutralize residue with dilute acetic acid. Nitric acid is very hazardous in  case of skin contact (corrosive, irritant, permeator), of eye contact (irritant, corrosive), and ingestion. It is slightly hazardous in case of inhalation (lung sensitizer, respiratory tract and mucus membrane irritant). Nitric acid is explosive in the presence of reducing materials, of organic materials, of metals, of alkalis. In case of spill, dilute with water, mop with an inert dry, and neutralize the residue with a dilute solution of sodium carbonate. Acetic acid is very hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation. It is hazardous in case of skin contact (corrosive, permeator), of eye contact (corrosive). It should be kept away from sources of heat, ignition, and oxidizing material. In case of spill, Dilute with water, mop with an inert dry, and neutralize the residue with a dilute solution of sodium carbonate. Potassium nitrite is extremely hazardous in case of skin contact (corrosive, irritant), of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, and inhalation. In case of spill, use appropriate tools to put the spilled solid in a convenient waste disposal container. Potassium nitrite should be kept dry, away from sources of ignition, heat, and combustible materials. Methylene chloride is very hazardous in case of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation, and skin contact (irritant, permeator). In case of spill dilute with water and mop with an inert dry material. Sulphate solution is hazardous in case of eye contact (irritant), skin contact (irritant), and ingestion. In case of skin contact, wash with soap and water, and cover area with an emollient. In case of spill, Dilute with water, mop with an inert dry material spread water on the contaminated surface. (ScienceLab, 2005) PROCEDURE Please refer to Lab 3: Qualitative Analysis Part 2- Anions chemistry Laboratory Manual 2013-2014, Durham College, pages 11-12 for full list of Materials and Methods. OBSERVATIONS Table 1a: Testing for the presence of Carbonate, CO32- anions 2 drops concentrated H2SO4 added, Test tube shaken Additional Observations Carbonate Solution, 3mL effervescence seen as colourless gas rises from bottom of test tube test tube feels much warmer, upon wafting the gas has a mildly unpleasant, acrid smell The presence of an effervescent reaction indicated that the sample had carbonate anions present. Table 1b: Testing for presence of Carbon Dioxide, CO2 ­ to confirm the presence of CO32- anions 2 drops 6M HCl 1 drop BaOH suspended over test tube Carbonate Solution, 3mL small amount of effervescence noted about 5 seconds after being suspended over test tube, the base of the droplet clouded with white precipitate The addition of HCl to the sample resulted in some rising gas bubbles, indicated that a gas was being formed. The clouding of the barium hydroxide droplet indicated it was reacting with carbon dioxide escaping the tube and thus confirmed the presence of carbonate anions in the sample. Table 2: Testing and confirming for the presence of Chloride, Cl- anions 5 drops 0.1M AgNO3 added NH4OH is added drop-wise Supernatant solution is decanted, 6M HNO3 is added Chloride Solution, 5mL cloudy white precipitate formed precipitate partially dissolved upon addition, distinct clear supernatant formed above remaining precipitate cloudy white precipitate reformed, small white granulations settled at bottom of test tube 6 drops of ammonium hydroxide, NH ­4OH, were added to the sample 6 drops of the nitric, HNO3, were added to acidify the sample The formation of a cloudy white precipitate in the presence of silver nitrate indicated that the sample had chloride anions present. The subsequent addition of ammonium and re-acidification of the sample resulted in the reformation of a cloudy whit precipitate, thus confirming the presence of chloride anions. Table 3a: Testing for the presence of Iodide, I- anions 5 drops 0.1M AgNo3 added Iodide Solution, 5mL cloudy pale yellow precipitate formed The presence of a cloudy yellow precipitate with silver nitrate indicates presence of iodide anion. Table 3b: Testing and confirming the presence of Iodide, I ­- anions Acetic acid is added drop-wise 2 drops KNO2 added 15 drops Methylene chloride added, test tube shaken Iodide Solution, 5mL Blue Litmus Paper confirmed the solution was acidic by turning red solution turned a mustard-brown colour 2 distinct layers formed in the test tube. The bottom layer was reddish magenta, and the top layer was a burnt-orange colour 2 drops of acetic acid, HC2H3O2, were added to acidify sample Upon confirming the sample was indeed acidic, it reacted with the potassium nitrate to change to a mustard-brown colour. The addition of the methylene chloride formed 2 distinctly coloured layers, thus confirming that the solution had iodide anions present. Table 4: Testing and confirming the presence of Sulphate SO42- anions 0.5mL of BaCl2-CaCl2 mixture added Test tube heated, stood for 10 minutes 5 drops 6M HCl, test tube heated Sulphate Solution, 3mL very faint wisps of cloudy white precipitate appeared noticeable cloudy white precipitate distributed throughout solution addition of HCl made test tube feel warm after heating test tube precipitate remained dispersed in solution In each instance of heating, the test tube was placed in a boiling water bath at 90oC The final heating of the test tube was for approximately 5minutes at 90oC The reaction of the sulphate solution with the barium chloride-calcium  chloride solution, when heated, resulted in the appearance of a fine white precipitate, indicating the sample had sulphate anions present. The subsequent addition of HCl and reheating resulting in the solution remaining relatively the same further confirmed that sulphate anions were present. Table 5a: Testing for Unknown Sample 7 for the presence of Carbonate, CO32- anions 2 drops concentrated H2SO4 added, Test tube shaken Additional Observations Unknown Sample 7, 3mL no visible effervescence no noticeable change to test tube’s temperature The lack of effervescence and heat produced by the sample indicated the absence of carbonate anions in the sample. Table 5b: Testing Unknown Sample for presence of Carbon Dioxide, CO2 ­ to confirm the presence of CO32- anions 2 drops 6M HCl 1 drop BaOH suspended over test tube Unknown Sample 7, 3mL no noticeable effervescence suspended droplet remained clear, despite being held over test tube for 15 seconds The sample did not react with the hydrochloric acid to produce a gas that reacted with the barium hydroxide, thus the suspended droplet remained clear. The results further confirmed the absence of carbonate anions. Table 6: Testing and confirming Unknown Sample for the presence of Chloride, Cl- anions 5 drops 0.1M AgNO3 added NH4OH is added drop-wise Supernatant solution is decanted, 6M HNO3 is added Unknown Sample 7, 5mL pale yellow precipitate formed no change to solution no change to solution 6 drops of ammonium hydroxide, NH ­4OH, were added to the sample Nitric acid, HNO3, was unable to be added to the precipitate as no clear supernatant was formed The lack of formation of a cloudy white precipitate in the presence of silver nitrate indicated that the sample did not have chloride anions present. The subsequent addition of ammonium and re-acidification of the sample were rendered purposeless. Table 7a: Testing Unknown Sample for the presence of Iodide, I- anions 5 drops 0.1M AgNo3 added Unknown Sample 7, 5mL cloudy pale yellow precipitate formed The presence of a cloudy yellow precipitate with silver nitrate indicates presence of iodide anion. Table 7b: Testing and confirming Unknown Sample for the presence of Iodide, I ­- anions Acetic acid is added drop-wise 2 drops KNO2 added 15 drops Methylene chloride added, test tube shaken Unknown Sample, 5mL Blue Litmus Paper confirmed the solution was acidic by turning red solution turned a mustard-orange colour  2 distinct layers formed in the test tube. The bottom layer was reddish-purple, and the top layer was an orange-brown 2 drops of acetic acid, HC2H3O2, were added to acidify sample Upon confirming the sample was indeed acidic, it reacted with the potassium nitrate to change to a mustard-orange colour. The addition of the methylene chloride formed 2 distinctly coloured layers, thus confirming that the solution had iodide anions present. Table 8: Testing and confirming Unknown Sample for the presence of Sulphate SO42- anions 0.5mL of BaCl2-CaCl2 mixture added Test tube heated, stood for 10 minutes 5 drops 6M HCl, test tube heated Unknown Sample, 3mL no precipitate formed no noticeable precipitate formed no change to solution In each instance of heating, the test tube was placed in a boiling water bath at 90oC The final heating of the test tube was for approximately 5minutes at 90oC The lack of precipitate formation in the test indicated that the sample was absent of sulphate anions. This result was further confirmed by the subsequent addition of hydrochloric acid and reheating failing to produce a precipitate. DISCUSSION: A strong acid such as H2SO4, sulphuric acid, combined with carbonate produces an effervescent reaction due to the formation of carbon dioxide. The heat felt from the test tube was a result of the exothermic reaction that the carbonate solution underwent in the presence of a strong acid. Sulfuric acid is a strong acid, but only for the first H, so it dissociates into H+ ion and the bisulfate ion, HSO4-. HSO4- is a weak acid and does not dissociate to a great extent, but it also reacts with carbonate (Dartmouth College, 2003). The presence of sulphur may have accounted for the mildly unpleasant scent wafted during the experiment. As indicated by the results of Table 1b, the formation of CO2 acted as a positive indicator for the presence of CO32- in a solution, as expressed by: 2H+(aq) + CO32-(aq) → H2O(l) + CO2(g). The exposure of the produced gas, carbon dioxide, to barium hydroxide resulted in the a cloudy white precipitate due to the formation of barium carbonate as expressed by: H2O (l) + CO2 (aq) + Ba2+ ­Ã‚ ­(aq) → BaCO2 (s) + 2 H+(aq). The addition of 01M AgNO3, silver nitrate, to the chloride solution resulted in the formation of a white precipitate due to the formation of silver chloride as expressed by: AgNO3 (aq) + Cl-(aq) → AgCl(s) + NO3 (g). It is interesting to note that chlorides are generally soluble, with the exception of lead(II) and silver chloride. When concentrated NH4OH was added to the silver chloride precipitate dissolved due to the formation of an ammine complex, [Ag(NH3)2]+. Silver nitrate is generally acidified with dilute nitric acid to prevent the precipitation of other non-halide silver salts (Brown, 2012). Nitric acid acidified the solution due to the addition of H+ ions to the solution, resulting in re-precipitation, thus definitively indicating the presence of chloride anions. This is expressed as AgCl(s) +  2NH3(aq) → Ag(NH3)2+(aq) + Cl-(aq) Ag(NH3)2+(aq) + Cl-(aq) + 2H+(aq) → AgCl(s) + 2NH4+(aq) The addition of 0.1M AgNO3 to the iodide solution resulted in the formation of a cloudy yellow precipitate as expressed by: AgNO3(aq) + I- → AgI(s), which as a precipitate is insoluble in concentrated ammonia. The addition of 6M acetic acid, HC2H3O2, acidified the solution, as confirmed by the litmus test. The newly acidic solution reacted with potassium nitrite, KNO2, reducing the nitrite to nitrogen dioxide as expressed by: I-(aq) + KNO2 → KI(aq) + NO2(g). The liberation of iodine in the reaction resulted in a brownish change in colouration of the solution (SUNY Chemisty, 2005). The failure of the sample to turn a reddish-brown may have been a source of error due to a failure to sufficiently rinse the cleaned test tube with DI water. Methylene chloride, CH2Cl2, which is a non-polar organic compound was added to the solution reacted with the iodide in the solution to form a violet coloured layer of denser solution, which settled at the bottom of the test tube. An alternative means of testing for the presence of iodide anions would have been to use starch, which forma a characteristic blue-black complex. The addition of the barium chloride-calcium chloride mixture, BaCl2-CaCl2, to the sulfate solution resulted in the formation of an insoluble white sulphate, barium sulphate as expressed by: Ba2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) → BaSO4(s). Other insoluble barium salts contain anions of weak acids (CO32-, SO32-and PO43-). Precipitation of these anions is generally prevented by acidifying the solution (Yoder, 2014). The products of the reaction were made more prominent by the catalyzing the reaction with heat, resulting in a more noticeably fine white precipitate distributed throughout the solution. The addition of 6M HCl, hydrochloric acid, served to acidify the solution, further illustrating the insolubility of the barium sulfate precipitate, thereby confirming the presence of sulphate anions. The unknown sample was placed through all confirmatory tests. It failed to react with Sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid to produce an effervescent reaction, indicating it was carbonate absent. Unknown Sample 7 did not react with the BaCl2-CaCl2 mixture to form a precipitate regardless of heat, indicating the absence of sulphate anions. Unknown Sample 7 formed a pale cloudy yellow precipitate upon the addition of silver nitrate, immediately indicating the presence of iodide anions, disqualifying the need to test  further for chloride. The addition of acetic acid to Unknown Sample 7 provide a sufficient acidic environment for the potassium nitrate to release iodine, thus the solution appeared as a dark mustard orange. The methylene chloride confirmed the presence of iodide anion when a distinct reddish-purple layer settled at the bottom of another distinctly coloured layer of solution. CONCLUSION: Based on the results of the experiment, Unknown Sample 7 demonstrated the formation of a precipitate in the presence silver nitrate, a change in colouration when mixed with potassium nitrate, and the formation of 2 distinctly coloured layers when methylene chloride was added to the solution and shaken. In accordance with the chemical properties exhibited by the 4 known anions during the qualitative testing, it can be concluded the Unknown Sample 4 clearly demonstrated the characteristic chemical responses of a solution with I- ions present. QUESTIONS 1. An ion is an atom that has lost or gained an electron to form a charged particle. 2. An anion is a negatively charged particle due to the atom gaining one or more electrons. A cation is a positively charged particle due to the atom losing one or more electrons. 3. H2SO4(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) → Na2SO4(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) 4a. Aluminum ion: Group IIIA, Al3+ 4b. Sulphur ion: Group VIA, S2- 4c. Iodide ion: Group VIIA, I- 4d. Oxygen ion: Group VIA, O2- 4e. Chloride ion: Group VIIA, Cl- REFERENCES Birk, J. P. (2001, December 4). General Chemistry With Qualitative Analysis. Retrieved from Arizona State University: Brown, W. (2012). Chemical Tests. Retrieved from Doc Brown’s Chemistry: Dartmouth College. (2003, May). ChemLab Chapter 5. Retrieved from Qualitative Analysis of Cations: ScienceLab. (2005, October 10). Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) List. Retrieved from Science Lab: SUNY Chemisty. (2005, December). Anion Analysis. Retrieved from Chemistry 112: Tro, N. J. (2011). Essential Introductory Chemistry (4th ed.). Toronto: Prentice Hall. White, R. (2013-2014). Qualitative Analysis Part 2- Anions. Chemistry 1 Laboratory Manual, 7-9. Yoder, C. (2014, November). Qualitative Analysis of CAans and Anions. Retrieved from Wired Chemist:

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Example of Concert Essay

This was a paper written by an actual student in the Popular Music in America class. It is not offered as an award-winning review nor is it compositionally error-free. It did, however, receive an A for this assignment and is an example of the level of writing and analysis that is required to receive an A. Please do not, however, begin your paper in exactly the same way or attempt to copy â€Å"buzz words† or phrases. Write your own paper! On February 17, 2005, the Jazz Ensemble at Tarleton State University had their first concert of the spring semester with special guest trumpeter, Daryl White. The jazz ensembles collectively performed thirteen pieces during the concert. â€Å"Fly Me to the Moon†, â€Å"Waltz for Debby† and â€Å"Ancient Memories† were three stylistically different pieces that allowed the audience to experience the various sounds of jazz music. Jazz music, like all music, tells a story and here are the stories of â€Å"Fly Me to the Moon†, â€Å"Waltz for Debby† and â€Å"Ancient Memories†. â€Å"Fly Me to the Moon†, written by Bart Howard and arranged by Sammy Nestico, is an upbeat standard sung most famously by Frank Sinatra. In the instrumental version of this song, a Latin-inspired sounding consonance set the romantic mood at the beginning of this song. A piano and saxophone then alternated the melody of the song as though they were dancing like two lovers flying to the moon. As the passion of the song heated up, the texture changed within the song as the saxophone took the melody and the piano and other instruments within the ensemble were in accompaniment. The rhythm, which was continuously steady seemed to get faster like a heart beat by the climax of the song. It was also at this point that the dynamics of the song were increasingly getting louder until all instruments met at the top with a bang and then changed the dynamics again to a moderate level until the song concluded.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Rococo, French Baroque and Classicism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Rococo, French Baroque and Classicism - Essay Example Rococo art is characterized by elegance compared to the classical approach which emphasized grandeur and symmetry making it a prerogative and preference of the aristocracy. It is more ornate whose approach complements the overall architecture and paintings of a home or structure and is praised for its aesthetic qualities. It objective is to appeal to the senses of its audience rather than evoke or stimulate the intellect. It strives for no deeper meaning other than to be beautiful and ornamental. Thus, it serves the elegant taste and ornamental use of the aristocrats making it their prerogative. For example, the murals that adorn the buildings and the homes of the aristocrats in the eighteenth century were Rococo in approach attesting their preference and for the art movement. The Rococo as an art movement was not received well from its inception and had been criticized as superficial owing to its ornamental and aesthetic approach. This criticism came from the perspective of the prev ailing art genre during that time which was French Baroque and Classicism. As an art movement, it even took a while for Rococo art to be formally recognized by art historians that only in the mid nineteenth century was it formally recognized. Having said this, philosophers became critical of the Rococo movement because it emphasizes elegance and aesthetics which run in contrast to philosophy which emphasizes depth and search for meaning. Philosophy is also particular about rules, symmetry and harmony which Rococo.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Case study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words - 10

Case study - Essay Example Studies have revealed that organizations encountering environmental crisis generally endeavour to recuperate their legitimacy by amplifying their environmental disclosures inside their annual reports. An investigation of the corporate disclosures subsequent to a major environmental crisis is likely to provide additional understanding regarding the strategies and accounting theories implemented by such companies. This paper illustrates the legitimacy theory related to corporate disclosure and assesses the practices and activities adopted by BP following its ‘Gulf oil spill crisis’. The legitimacy theory illustrates the rationale behind the revelation of environmental information by corporate organizations. Legitimacy theory states that corporate firms must think about the rights of the society on the whole, and not merely focus on that of their investors. If the firms do not seem to function within the limits of the conduct considered suitable by the society, then the society will take actions to hamper the firm’s right to carry on its business operations. When there is a definite and possible inconsistency amid the business as well as the social value systems, it will result in intimidations to organizational legitimacy in context of economic, legal, and other authorizations (Prabhu 1998; Neu et al. 1998). Neu et al. (1998) opined that the legitimacy of a company is built and preserved by means of symbolic action, which act as elements of the company’s public image. This paper would evaluate the disclosure patterns as well as BP’s strategies following the crisis related to the ‘Gulf of Mexico oil spill’. In April, 2010, a fire explosion took place in the ‘Deepwater Horizon oil rig’, ultimately sinking the vessel and spilling 4.9 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico, until the well was lastingly plugged. This incident resulted in the death of 11 people, while gravely injuring 17 persons. The event had serious

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Privacy Policies of Social Media Sites Case Study

Privacy Policies of Social Media Sites - Case Study Example Nonetheless, numerous individuals who may not be friends and relatives have an interest in the information person post on social media. People aiming to steal identities, scam artists, debt collectors as well as stalkers and companies in search for market advantage have resulted in using social media to collect information concerning the consumers. The organizations that operate the social media platforms are also gathering various forms of data concerning their users with the aim of personalizing their services as well as selling advertisements. Social media sites have different degrees of privacy offered to the users in that for some of the sites such as Facebook, users are encouraged to provide their actual names along with other personal information through their profiles2 (Magdalinski 149). This information typically includes dates of birth, telephone numbers as well as email addresses and locations. Other sites give users the chance to provide additional information about themselves that includes their interests, hobbies, preferred films and relationship statuses. Nonetheless, there are sites like where most of the users favor anonymity and therefore connecting to their real identities may be difficult. Regardless of this, people may sometimes be identified through face re-identification and studies that have been done on two social media sites have demonstrated that through overlapping fifteen percent of similar photos, profile pictures with the same pictures over multiple sites may be matched to clearly iden tify the users. Security along with privacy that is linked to social media sites are essentially issues of behavior and not technology. With an increase in the amount of information that is posted on social media, the higher the amount of information that is accessible for potential compromise by the people whose intentions are malicious. The individuals who provide personal information about themselves or people they are  associated with, knowingly or unknowingly, are at more risk.  

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Voter Turmont vs Ballot Initiatives Research Paper

Voter Turmont vs Ballot Initiatives - Research Paper Example Whether or not ballot initiatives have an effect on voter turnout in the United States is a contested question. Voter turnout referrers to the number of people who take part in a voting forum like election, referendum or other gatherings. Voter turnout exhibits some hearty pattern that explains why the number of voters varies from one place to another. According to most researches done on voter turnout, the main factor that affects voter turnouts is institutional variables (Jackman, 1987). Ballot initiative on the other side is referred to a process of whereby the people are authorized to enact or refute legislations at the polls hence superseding the legislative body. An initiative is a type of election facilitated by the people with the aim of resolving issues that elected leaders fail to raise or attend contrary to public desires. In 1962, Powell’s book, ‘Contemporary Democracies’ was the first book to be published on the study of voter turnout. His 1986 articl e, ‘American Political Science Review Articles’ established that countries with nationally competitive districts whose parties and members usually have enticements to persuade voters to turn up at the polls, or those that had strong party-group association such as churches and unions were likely to have high voter turnout (Powell, 1986, p 21-22). In his conclusion, Powell said that the turnout in America is inhibited by its institutional context, and the main emphasis, which is also the most powerful variable, is on party-group associations. Voter turnout in the past years has been on a declining trend in the united State, with only a few exceptions. Although some sources from defenders of participatory, normative theorists and to some extent journalist have indicated that ballot measures that are initiated by citizens are likely to increase voter turnout, other researches refute the assertions, despite use of direct democracy having been embraced in the United States f or the last 25 years. Whereas those who prefer direct democracy dispute that citizen participation, efficacy and confidence in the government can only be increased by permitting citizens to vote directly on policy issues, those who oppose say the process will only have minimal change, and threatens to deteriorate state legislatures and replace representative democracy (Broder, 2000). Most of the conclusions based on the comparative cross-national research are vigorous and as a result, there lacks a compelling foundation over the connection between voter turnout and ballot initiatives. Institutional variables in the end get to be overstated. Use of the initiative process for over 26 years in 50 states has been linked to higher turnout rates. The initiative process is evidently assisting in increasing the number of turnout in electoral participation. For example, in the 1990’s the discrepancy in turnout rates between initiative and non initiative states has been on the rise ove r time, estimated at 3% to 4.5% higher in presidential elections and between 7% to 9% higher in midterm elections (Tolbert Grummel & Smith, 2001). The rate of ballot initiative measures is increasing in the United States, with an increase on the use of initiatives to decide policy matters. In states such as California, Mississippi, Colorado,

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Google and its Evil Face Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Google and its Evil Face - Essay Example The world declares the search engine as a mine for information, but fails to look at the down side to it since in reality Google is a corruption of the world in relation to information, privacy and security. Google states its mission as the organization of the world’s information so that it can be reached by anyone in the world. However, even when it provides plenty of information to the reader, this search engine is the worst thing to have happened to our society in relation to worsening of peoples’ reading habits, where there is no more reading in books. This is affecting comprehension of content acquired from reading books and read from Google search results. Google is a great tool to get any form of information; however, it is creating negative tendencies in our society. This is concerning Google users becoming careless on the information they search for and the safety concerns on privacy (Staff and Agencies). For this reason, searching for information on Google sho uld involve allocation of enough time in order to search for adequate information and resources, while putting into consideration privacy and security concerns. In fact, what society gets by using Google is quantity information, and not quality, which is what people instinctively want. Therefore, the public gets into a comfort zone, which it does not intend to leave due to the ease of operation for humans in that level. For instance, on a five-year research program the British Library and one by a U.K. educational consortium, they found out that people get obsessed with looking for information once they log on (Carr). In such cases, the users search for articles and journals that they do not necessarily read or intend to read, but instead keep searching. After this, the focus lies in skimming through the articles without taking the time to understand the concept. Consequently, people do not go to libraries to find information in books or from the periodicals rooms. As a result, Goog le is affecting the society through giving them quantity and by that, people stop reading books because; with only typing in Google search what they need, it would be an instant when they get the answers and all the necessary information requested. Google as any other social network wants to control what the users do. Therefore, they would not go and join other search engines, which provide email and the location where they are. Google is controlling the users by buying new markets and expanding in new areas, they get new features, a faster search and there is no one that can compete with this search engine (Rooketix Ltd). Similarly, bringing of Chrome for Android into the market has revealed how Google is potential of remembering all our browsing history and their capacity to transfer it into the cloud (Moreni). Therefore, if anyone is logged into a Google account, it is stated in the Google privacy policy that any service used will be able to track universally by using the e-mail address and your current location. Moreover, they are able to track everything you search for, and as long as you look for that same topic repeatedly, advertisements will start to appear on the sides according to the most current topics every user searches (Davies). Google based on its mission statement has gone as far as attempting to collect as much information as it can. This is in relation to creating a form of online storage the documents and other files that people have. Following the mission statement of Google, it seeks to create a database of all the knowledge that exists in the world and place it in a central place for all to access free of charge. In light of this, Google has come up with Google Drive, which saves up to five gigabytes of user documents;

Monday, September 23, 2019

The nature of the Bolshevik takeover in October 1917 Coursework

The nature of the Bolshevik takeover in October 1917 - Coursework Example There are some scholars like (C) and (D) who show Provisional Government’s only failure was perhaps to adequately deal with the rising power of Kornilov and the mishandling of the entire Kornilov affair. Others like (B) show clearly how Lenin was able to cleverly take advantage of the multiple and varied failures of the Provisional Government on diverse accounts ranging from food shortages, poor working conditions and the economic maladies. However there are others like (A) who offer a very weak interpretation of the events that perpetuated in the Bolshevik revolution of October 1917 and hence does not add anything substantial to the debate on the role of the failure of the provisional government in the rise of the Bolsheviks. This is tersely and aptly put across in (B) where the authors delineate the growing discontentment of almost all sections of the Soviet society with the Provisional Government and the increasing influence of Lenin who promised a better life to all. However, both (C) and (D) have postulated the Bolsheviks’ rise to power only as an offshoot of the failure of the Provisional Government to deal with the Kornilov affair. â€Å"The Bolsheviks were the principal beneficiaries of the Kornilov crisis, winning their first majority in the Petrograd Soviet on 31 August† shows that (C) simply links the Kornilov crisis with the Bolsheviks winning the Petrograd Soviet; as also does, â€Å"in party-political terms, the prime beneficiary of this reaction to the Kornilov affair was the Bolshevik party† in (D). Both (C) and (D) have highlighted the Kornilov affair and Kerensky’s lack of insight and management of it as the prime causes leading to the Bolshevik’s gains. ... Both (C) and (D) have highlighted the Kornilov affair and Kerensky’s lack of insight and management of it as the prime causes leading to the Bolshevik’s gains. However, this was just one isolated incidence, and this (Kornilov affair) too was an outcome of the failure of the Provisional Government on many different levels which are well and succinctly explained by (B). Also, (A) is completely off the mark and provides no information or insight on the topic under discussion; instead (A) reflects on the serendipity of Bolsheviks’rising to power at all. While this makes a good and interesting read, (A)’s reminiscences go waste when it comes to evaluating the role played by the failures of the Provisional Government in the rise of Bolsheviks. In fact, if anything (A) provides some dubious evidence to support the contention that the Provisional Government was seen such a failure by the soviet masses and the military, that even in spite of the many exigencies and limitations, the Bolsheviks were able to gain mass support at the grassroot level and come to power. In contrast, (B) provides substantial evidence to support the believe that it was the failure of the Provisional Government that allowed the Bolshevik to stage a coup in October 1917 and ultimately the Bolshevik take over. This contention is explicitly backed by Weiner (2001) who states that the Provisional Government that headed the country post the fall of the Tsar was expected to take the reins of the economy and politics and steer the nation on the path to democratically elect a more permanent government. Instead, the provisional government was mired in political intrigues and mismanagements and complete lack of focus on the

Sunday, September 22, 2019

God has Ontological Existence Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

God has Ontological Existence - Term Paper Example The religious philosophers, over the centuries have tried to establish the existence of God and have come up with numerous arguments .Major arguments about His existence are Cosmological, Ontological, Teleological and the Moral Law Argument. The Cosmological Argument comes from the Greek word ‘cosmos’, which means the world. The Cosmological argument states that the universe could not have existed by its own, there must have been some cause that would have made the universe and that cause is God. The Teleological argument is from the word ‘teleo’ that means design or purpose. As the universe evidences great complexity of design, the great designer, the God must have designed it. The Moral law argument proposes that the moral Law and Order in this world is alive and exists because of God who has bestowed human beings with this understanding of morality. According to the Ontological Argument, the God is the greatest being, imaginable, one of the aspects of greatness and perfection is his existence or in other words as God can be conceived that means he exists. Twelfth century theologian and philosopher Anslem developed this argument about God’s existence. This argument proves about the existence of God through abstract reasoning. Descartes in his Meditation 3 proposes about the Ontological existence of God .His Meditation 3 questions about the existence of God and his analysis is devoid of any scientific proof and religious arguments.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Alabama Immigration Law Essay Example for Free

Alabama Immigration Law Essay Policy Analysis I Paper CJA 463 Policy Analysis I Paper The new Alabama Immigration Law has set a new get tough standard for immigration law and policies. The law â€Å"[outlaws illegal immigrants from receiving any state or local public benefits, bars them from enrolling in or attending public colleges, and prohibits them from applying for or soliciting work]†. (Fausset,  para. 11) The Alabama Immigration Law also forbids the harboring and transport of illegal immigrants. The law also outlaws them from knowingly renting any type of facility or property and does not allow them to work any where in the sate. If a company has an illegal person on their payroll then it makes it an illegal practice to not hire a legal resident. A big issue that has come up in many debates is the fact that schools now have to verify the legality of students in their schools. It does not ban students from attending the school but it does require that the schools keep a report and send it in to the state board of education. Another issue is that the police department must detain any person that can no provide documentation of being a United States Citizen. The Governor of Alabama, Robert Bentley, initiated this bill into congress and it was passed. The bill takes effect on September 1st 2011. Opponents of the bill state that it is unconstitutional. Some of them even saying that it is going back to the pre civil rights era. People are afraid that students will be afraid to attend school in case they are found out to be illegal. If they are found to be illegal then their parents and family could be kicked out of their home, fired from their jobs and they could lose any benefits that they may have making it impossible for them to live. The fear is also that they will be harassed by other kids at the school making it hard for them to attend and learn. The constitutional issue that arises is the discrimination factor. Illegal immigrants are being discriminated against because of their background. It is against the constitution to do that. This has many people angry and looking to overturn the laws in Alabama because of this. This law is more of a regulatory policy because the government of Alabama passed the law to ban illegal immigrants from the state and the laws to enact this ban are going to be taken into effect. The policies and laws surrounding this new act will affect many people and organizations. The illegal immigrants are going to be affected but the police department will have to make a special unit to handle the illegal immigrants or the suspected illegal immigrants that are stopped and detained. This will cost the taxpayers more money and will cost the police department more money because they will have to build bigger facilities, hire more work force and ensure that everyone is multilingual that works on these task forces. Those that do not have the funds to build bigger holding facilities will have to incur the costs to transport the illegal immigrants to other facilities within the state to hold until another unit comes in and verifies their status. The schools will have to hire a whole team that counts and ensures legal status for all children in the school. This unit would need to be multilingual to help with the needs of the illegal immigrant children and to ensure they knew what to do with these statistics. The school system will incur many costs because the unit will have to research and prepare a report stating their findings to the state board of education in Alabama. The state as a whole will be affected because employers will be afraid to hire anyone that does not â€Å"look† American. The employers have to hire another set of employees just to handle the paperwork involved in the e-verify system and to ensure all of their employees are legally authorized to work in the United States. This will cost the employers more money and will leave them little to no room to give incentive raises or merit based raises because of the new jobs this will entail. When new jobs are added, more taxes and insurance is required causing some places to maybe even shut their doors.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Media in Jamaica Analysis

Media in Jamaica Analysis The Media in the Country of Jamaica Cory Marshall Jamaica is the fifth largest island country in the Caribbean and is home to 2.8 million citizens. It was once known as Santiago when it was under Spanish control until 1655 when England began to rule the country and changed the name to Jamaica. Today, Jamaica is still under the rule of Great Britain with a representative known as the Governor-General of Jamaica and a head of government and Prime Minister. Throughout history, Jamaica has had strong influences on media across the globe and this research paper will look into the many areas in media which Jamaica has had a part in. The idea of broadcasting to the Jamaican people first came in the form of radio in 1939 when the Jamaican government retrieved ham radio equipment from John Grinan, a Jamaican amateur radio operator, at the beginning of World War II (, retrieved 12/3/2014). Grinan followed the war closely and convinced the Jamaican government to purchase his equipment and create a public broadcasting system. The first official Jamaican public radio broadcast began on November 17, 1939 and consisted of one broadcast per week coming from Grinans home. This would continue until the middle of 1940 when the station hired a staff and began to broadcast daily. The station became very popular and as this happened it became very expensive to operate. That’s when the decision was made to license a private company to take over the station. In 1950, Radio Jamaica was born and was a privately owned subsidiary of Re-diffusion Group of London. (Watson, 2011) Because it was owned by a London group, it was required to broadcast at least 10 hours per week of BBC content. Therefore, the majority of the content of the station was British. This would continue for ten years until the government owned Jamaican Broadcasting Corporation radio was created in 1959 and began broadcasting that same year. (Dunn, 2000) JBC wanted to help further develop in Jamaica and began so by using the motto, â€Å"the listening component of nation-building†. JBC did very well and received a lot of government funding. However, the station would only survive until 1997 when it was decided that a new organization, the Public Broadcasting Corporation of Jamaica would take over as the official public broadcasting radio station of Jamaica. The PBCJ began broadcasting in 2006 and can still be heard on Jamaican airwaves today. Like radio, television became an extremely popular medium in Jamaica. In 1962, Jamaica attained independence from England. One year later, the first television broadcasting station was formed. The station was trusted to the Jamaican Broadcasting Company who already had a strong presence in Jamaica with their radio station. The television station would be known as JBCTV. Like the radio sides â€Å"listening component† motto, JBCTV would use the motto â€Å"the visual component in nation building†. One big difference between JBCTV and JBC radio was the way it was funded. Even though the parent company, JBC, received government funding, JBCTV would be financed primarily through advertisement. This was due to the idea that JBCTV would be very expensive to run, therefore the government did not want to finance such a heavy expense. The satellite boom in the 1980s expanded the broadcasting industry. Prior to this point, JBCTV was the dominate television station in Jamaica. So when satellites expanded the broadcasting industry it created competition to JBCTV by allowing those who could afford it, access to foreign television stations as well. This was due to Jamaica’s close proximity to the United States which allowed satellites to pick up US signals. To compete with this, cable companies were born. (Gordon, 2008) In 1997, JBCTV would become TVJ. TVJ became a privately owned commercial station run by JBCs old rival, the Radio Jamaica Communications Group where it still operates today as TVJ. Well before radio and television was introduced to Jamaica, another form of media had been alive for over two centuries; the newspaper. Way back in the year 1718, the first printing press arrived in Jamaica by printer Robert Baldwin, and soon began printing a newspaper, the Weekly Jamaica Courant. (Fraas, 2012) This newspaper is known as being the second regular newspaper in the Americas. It is so old that scholars have only located 10 issues of the theWeekly Jamaica Courantprinted before 1730. This newspaper would run until 1755 and contained information common to many English colonial newspapers. This information included the prices of goods, slave auctions, shipping news, as well as advertisements (Tortello, 2003). Occasionally, local news was posted, such as when the hurricane hit Jamaica in 1722 and 400 people died. Only a few copies of the Courant have survived and are now found in Londons Public Records Office. In the 1830s Jamaican newspaper history would be made when the deCordova brothers launched The Daily Gleaner. The newspaper started out as a way for the deCordova brothers to publicize goods for sale. Three months after the first published Daily Gleaner, the papers name changed to The Gleaner: A Weekly Family Newspaper devoted to Literature, Morality, the Arts and Sciences and Amusements. Today, The Gleaner is the largest newspaper on the island of Jamaica. The Gleaner employes close to 500 people in Jamaica, with offices in Kingston, Montego Bay, America, Canada and the United Kingdom (Tortello, 2003). Filmmakers have been coming to Jamaica since the early 1900s. However, Jamaicas own film scene is not really well known but it is growing. The first movie made in Jamaica by Jamaicans was the 1972 film titled The Harder They Come (, 2009). The film represented a breakout for the island’s music scene of the 1960s and early 1970s. Jamaica has been a popular place for filmmakers to shoot due to the jungle environment. However, Jamaicas own film industry is very small. One of the most obvious reasons for this is most likely cost. Films are expensive to make. However, there is new hope that Jamaicas film industry will grow. The Film Commission of Jamaica was established in 1984. The commission works hard to bring filmmakers to the island, but there is also growing interest in developing Jamaica’s own cinematic creations. Jamaica has recently seen their film industry grow due to a film festival. The Jamaica International Reggae Film Festival is an event that takes place in Kingston, Jamaica and is held annually every February. The festival was created in 2008 by filmmaker Barbara Blake Hannah. Hannah is currently the Executive Director of the Jamaica Film Academy, Managing Director of Jamaica Media Productions Ltd, and the director of the Jamaica International Reggae Film Festival. Since the film festival was created, the film industry in Jamaica has grown tremendously. This, as well as a recent European film treaty which enables Jamaican film makers to ask for funding in Europe, has given much more opportunities for Jamaican film. Prior to 1999, the Jamaican telecommunications sector was dominated by Cable and Wireless Jamaica. This company is a British company that has been the major telecommunications provider to Jamaica since the mid nineteenth century. The company operated in the British Colonial government since as early as 1868. In the 1960s, during the first decade of political independence in the region, the Jamaican government wanted to take control of all telecommunications resources in the country. To do this, the government took over the majority of equity of Cable and Wireless Jamaica. They would gain 51 percent of shareholding in the company, therefore giving the government majority control. However, in the 1970s and 1980s, the technology and ability to control the company and all of telecommunications in Jamaica became very difficult. So in 1987 Cable and Wireless Jamaica was able to take control back and was no longer government operated. This has allowed the company to grow tremendously and has since become a monopoly in telecommunications and now controls the telecommunic ations industry in 15 Caribbean territories (Dunn, Gooden, retrieved 12/3/2014). Though they are the largest telecommunications company in Jamaica, they are not the only. The other two companies that specialize in telecommunications in Jamaica are Digicel and Oceanic Digital. Both companies were granted licenses in 2001 to operate mobile services in a country whose telecommunications market was dominated by Cable and Wireless. Today, all three companies share the market in Jamaica with Cable and Wireless Communications being the leading operator in most of the Caribbean and Latin America. Internet is used in Jamaica, however, it is still behind other Caribbean nations in terms of usage. As of 2010, internet was being used by 55% of all Jamaicans. One can only assume that internet usage today has increased in Jamaica. Internet statistics show that from 2006 to 2010 there was a 16% increase of Jamaicans using internet (, 2010). There was no statistics on internet use beyond 2010 but with this rate of increase, it is projected that about 70% of Jamaicans are online. That is a tremendous number in terms of Caribbean nations. A 2009 e-commerce report by Jamaica’s Minister of Industry, Commerce, Science and Technology, Phillip Paulwell, emphasized the importance of Jamaica to continue to grow in the internet market and to be e-ready. the Minister informed that Jamaica has made tremendous progress and was now behind the United States, Canada, Brazil and Chile in terms of our E-readiness for this region, and was looking forward to overtaking them as the first developing country to do so in the region. (, 2009). Paulwell discussed the importance of Jamaica to move past telephone technology by saying, the mission is to move away from the focus on voice and instead to try in greater earnest to ensure that we have the infrastructure for supporting a knowledge-based society. This mission is currently underway and has improved the internet in Jamaica. Over the last nine years, The Universal Service Fund has invested billions of dollars to provide internet access to Jamaicans. As of September of 2014, the fund has completed a total of 188 Internet community access points throughout the country with the final goal being 236 (Observer, 2014). This will allow internet to flow all throughout the entire country of Jamaica. The culture of Jamaica is one that is rich and seen worldwide. It is a combination of cultures from the first descendants to the island. The original Taino Settlers, and then the Spanish conquerors all made major contributions. However, the most dominant culture in Jamaica is the blacks and slaves who suffered the harsh conditions of forced labor. One of the most well known culture aspects of Jamaica is Rastafari. It is a religion that was made famous by musician Bob Marley. Rastafari itself is a religious belief system that is based on teachings found in the Old Testament and the New Testament. Rasta cultural traditions include keeping their hair uncut and in dreadlocks, as well as eating unprocessed foods which are known as Ital. Though Rastafari is very well known worldwide, it is a very small culture on the island and is often frowned upon by christian Jamaicans. Jamaica is also home to a very strong music scene. Reggae music is extremely powerful in Jamaica and has revolutionized dance in Jamaica. Jamaica is also home to a popular theatre scene. Jamaicas first theatre was built in 1682. Other theatres opened up in the 1700s and 1800s and allowed professional touring to perform in the country. Todays most popular theatrical form in Jamaica is known as pantomime and began in the 1940s as a combination of English pantomime with Jamaican folklore (Banham, 2005). Sports are also very popular with Jamaican culture. By far the most dominant sport in the country is cricket. The Jamaica national cricket team has won ten Regional Four Day Competitions and seven WICB Championship Cups. What we call soccer is also a popular sport in Jamaica. The Jamaica national football team has won the Caribbean Cup five times and advanced to the 1998 FIFA World Cup. Jamaica is also a leader in sprinting. The current world record holder for 100m and 200m, Usain Bolt and the former 100m world record holder, Asafa Powell, are both from Jamaica. Jamaica is home to several very popular festivals. In 1962, The Jamaica Independence Festival was created. It is a festival that celebrates the countrys freedom and is in place to showcase literary, fine, and performing artists, and to celebrate things Jamaican (Gleanor, retrieved 2014). The festival is a way to give Jamaicans a sense of what their culture is all about. One of the highlights of the festival is the Popular Song Competition. Every year since 1966, a competition is held at the festival to crown an artist the winner. The winner receives one million dollars and a new car. In addition to this competition, the festival now includes the Miss Jamaica Festival Queen Contest, a national Mento band competition, and a Gospel song competition. As this paper has shown, Jamaica is a small country with a big media presence. The country has a rich history in all of its media. Today, Jamaica is home to 14 television stations and 27 radio stations (Dunn, 2000). The newspaper industry is still strong after survived for nearly 300 years. Today, youll also find cellphones in almost every Jamaicans hand and the internet is still continuing to grow and reaches more and more Jamaicans everyday. The Jamaican culture is a fascinating one and having the opportunity to research the history in so many different areas is one I’ll continue to look into. Ill conclude this paper with the official motto of Jamaica; Jamaica, Out of Many, One People. Bibliography Jamaica. (2010). Retrieved from Watson, Roxanne. (2011). â€Å"Daggering† and the regulation of questionable broadcast media content in Jamaica. Communication Law Policy . Vol. 16 Issue 3, p255-315. 61p. Dunn, Hopeton S. (2000). Jamaican media: Ringing the changes 50 years and beyond. Buzz. Vol. 6 Issue 31, p92-96. 5p. Gordon, Nickesia S. Media an:d the Politics of Culture: The Case of Television Privatization and Media Globalization in Jamaica. Boca Raton, Florida: Universal Publishers. (2008). Print Fraas, Mitch. (2012). The Calve’s Head and Early Printing in Jamaica. Retrieved from Tortello, Rebecca. (2003). Printing in Jamaica. Pieces of the Past. Retrieved from (2009). Jamaica and Film. Retrieved from Dunn, Hopeton S. Gooden, Winston S. Telecommunications in Jamaica. Retrieved from Internet World Stats. (2010). Jamaica. Retrieved from Internet World Stats. (2009). Broadband and Consumer E-Commerce in Jamaica. Retrieved from JIS. â€Å"Govt invests billions to provide Jamaicans with Internet access.† Jamaica Observer. 22 Sep. 2014. Banham, Martin. Hill, Errol. Woodyard, George. The Cambridge Guide to African and Caribbean Theatre. Cambridgeshire, England. Cambridge University Press. (2005). Print Bibliography Jamaica Gleaner. (2003). The History of Jamaica Festival. Pieces of the Past. Retrieved from

Thursday, September 19, 2019

A Review of the Beck Youth Inventories for Children and Adolescents Es

The Beck Youth Inventory Test was developed in 2001 by Judith Beck, Aaron Beck, John Jolly, and Robert Steer. The purpose of this psychological testing tool is a brief self-report to measure the distress in children and adolescents (Flanagan & Henington, 2005). The Beck Youth Inventory includes using five self-administered scales. The five tests include the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Anger Inventory, Beck Disruptive Inventory, and the Beck Self-Concept Inventory. These tests can be administered individually or in combination to the youth. The intended population for this test is ages 7-14 years (Flanagan & Henington, 2005). This test is used to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety, anger, disruptive behavior, and self esteem (Beck, 2001). The Beck Depression Inventory measures depression criteria as evidenced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (Flanagan & Henington, 2005). The Beck Anxiety Inventory assesses childhood fears related to health and school (Flanagan & Henington, 2005). The Beck Anger Inventory appraises the individual’s opinion of mistreatment, negative thoughts, and physiological arousal (Flanagan & Henington, 2005). The Beck Disruptive Behavior Inventory measures behaviors and attitudes related to oppositional and defiant behavior (Flanagan & Henington, 2005). This is consistently seen in youth diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder. Lastly, the Beck Self-Concept Inventory assesses feelings of self-worth and competence (Flanagan & Henington, 2005). The theory of the Beck Youth Inventory Test was derived from the adult Beck Scales (Beck, 2001). The authors of this testing instrument saw a need for this... only individually in order to encourage honest responses and not have any peer influences (Flanagan & Henington, 2005). Overall, the Beck Youth Inventory is a useful tool, but should be used in conjunction with other assessment instruments. References Beck, J. (2001, November). New Scales for Children: The Beck Youth Inventory. The Beck Institute, 1-5. Copyright 1999-2007. Beck, J. (2001). Beck Youth Inventories for Children and Adolescents (2nd ed.). PsychCorp: Harcourt Assessment, Inc. Flanagan, R., & Henington, C. (2005). Review of the Beck Youth Inventories for Children and Adolescents: Second Edition. Mental Measurements Yearbook, 18, 18123501 Trochim, W. (2006). Reliability and Validity: What’s the Difference?. Retrieved February 8, 2010, from http://socialresearch

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Student Roles and Responsibilities for the Master of Counseling Marriag

Student Roles and Responsibilities for the Master of Counseling Marriage, Family and Child Therapy Specialty The student roles and responsibilities of the Masters of Counseling in Marriage, Family and Child Therapy (MCMFCT) at the University of Phoenix are to advance competent and ethical practitioners in family, couple and individual therapy in a variety of settings. By following the program's defined curriculum for professional role development, the successful graduate will be able to provide counseling services "in accordance with the highest ethical and professional standards" (Master of Counseling - Program Handbook, p. 7). To achieve this end, the student must adopt and synthesize the professional and ethical standards of the program into his own academic and personal development. He must develop and demonstrate a broad base of theoretical knowledge and therapeutic skills combined with his own ethical judgment and counseling expertise. The student is responsible for maintaining a grade point average (GPA) of 3.0 or better to indicate a foundation of behavioral and social sciences, developmental theories as well as principles and practices for planning, initiating and evaluating therapeutic roles. In addition, a GPA of 3.0 or better must be maintained in all clinical courses to display excellence in standards and competence as a counseling professional. Failure to maintain the...

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

James Herriot’s If Only They Could Talk Essays -- James Herriot Only T

James Herriot’s If Only They Could Talk In James Herriot’s autobiographical book, If Only They Could Talk, we see that Herriot has many strong characteristics which help him through his tough, and oftentimes demanding, career. He has a vast knowledge of his practice, as well as his employer and friend, Seigfried Farnon. Herriot has a great sense of humour, and is able to take embarrassment excellently. He also works well in strange, or uncomfortable situations. One of his strong character traits is his adaptability, he is very flexible with his customers, and adapts to their lifestyles. James Herriot’s most endearing quality is his deep passion and concern for his patients. James Herriot has a tremendous memory of all the signs, symptoms, medications, diseases, and sicknesses concerning animals. This helps him very much throughout his career. He remembers thinking to himself about a horse reference book, â€Å"I had gone through it so often in my mind final year that I could recite stretches of it like poetry.†(1) He is able to deduct a patient’s problem without even needing an x-ray, or anything of that sort. In one situation, a bull was in danger of dying, and no one knew what was wrong. Herriot felt the rays of sun on his face and knew then that the bull had sun-stroke, and when asked, the owner told him he had put the bull out to pasture for a long length of time. James Herriot also understood his employer, Farnon, well. He knew when to steer clear, and when to ask him for advice and guidance. Herriot said: â€Å"I could read his mind without much trouble.†(2) Herriot had a wonderful sense of humour, and was always happy to get a laugh, even if it was at his own expense. Once, he was out with another aged veterinarian, Angus Grier, and found himself in quite a predicament. Grier insisted on Herriot coming with him to a cleanse a cow. This was a fairly simple procedure, where you remove the afterbirth still inside the cow. Herriot did not feel he needed to go, thus he said he did not have the proper clothes for the job. Grier was annoyed, but forcefully suggested Herriot put on Grier’s new calving outfit. It was an immense plastic suit of armor, and Grier made Herriot put every part of it on, including the helmet. This was, of course, quite ridiculous just for cleansing out a cow. But Herriot did it, and was the center of attention at the families’ fa... ... best feeling in the world to him, and that is why he would not have chosen any other profession: â€Å"I can’t think of anything in my working life that has given me more pleasure than standing in that pen directing the life-saving jet and watching the bull savoring it.†(10) Another thing that Herriot loved was new-born animals. Especially when he helped deliver them! He was really interested in the cycle of life. I think this also helped keep things going. The fact that every year, it was a new beginning: â€Å"I felt utterly content, warm with the memory of the foal trying to struggle on to it’s knees†¦Ã¢â‚¬ (11) James Herriot has a very strong character, and a very good sense of values. His humour keeps the days light, and jovial, and gets all the not-so-great situations a little bit easier to handle. His expansive knowledge of his job keeps the work somewhat easy, and helps with the hard to solve problems. His adaptability is very useful, as he works with many people, and in many different places. His deep concern, appreciation, and love for his patients, and all animals keeps him doing his job. No matter how hard it gets, he does it for the animals, and this is why he has kept on going.

Monday, September 16, 2019

History of the Marine Nco

Role of the Marine Non Commissioned Officer After the Vietnam War ended, the Marine Corps’ main focus changed from broad scale operations, to being an Expeditionary Force in Readiness. Although this was no new role for the United States Marine Corps (USMC), there have been many changes in society, technology and tactics that affect how the Corps operates. However, over the last 36 years one thing has remained the same, and that is the role of the Marine Non Commissioned Officer (NCO).With the world changing ever so rapidly, the strong values and responsibilities of the Marine NCO are now, more than ever, necessary to carry out the operations being assigned to United States Marines. The role of the NCO is characterized by their leadership skills, ability to train and care for their subordinates, as well as their responsibility to enforce Marine Corps standards to ensure the proficiency of the Marines in their unit. 1 Strong NCO leadership is extremely crucial on the battlefield , particularly when it comes to small unit combat operations.The Marine NCO must have courage to be able to lead their Marines in the presence of danger. An excellent example of the courage shown by an NCO is portrayed through the actions of Sgt Dakota L. Meyer. On September 8th 2009 (Corporal at the time), Meyer’s unit was ambushed by over 50 Taliban insurgents. This turned into a six-hour fire-fight, in which he risked his life for his fellow service members. Meyer repeatedly exposed himself to enemy fire to rescue the wounded, and bring 13 U. S. Marines and Soldiers, as well as 23 Afghan National Army Soldiers to safety. Along with these actions he also killed over eight enemy combatants. For his actions, Sgt Meyer has been nominated for the Medal of Honor and is scheduled to receive it sometime in September 2011. Sgt Meyer’s outstanding leadership has proven how important the values of courage and selflessness are in the Marine Non Commissioned Officer. Another imp ortant responsibility of the NCO is to ensure their Marines are knowledgeable. During humanitarian aid missions like Operation Restore Hope (Somalia 1992) and Operation Unified Response (Haiti 2010), troops were deployed on short notice. It was imperative that these Marines understood the mission, and had the proper training before hand to carry out these tasks.The focus that NCOs put on training and preparedness was proven to be successful when it came time for their Marines to assist in expediting the relief efforts. The training Marines are given consists of maintaining annual qualifications, Military Occupational Specialty (MOS), and Professional Military Education. It is the responsibility of the Non Commissioned Officer to ensure that their junior Marines are completing rifle qualifications, physical fitness tests, swimming qualifications as well as any other yearly requirements.Marines should also be seeking knowledge in and outside of their MOS on a regular basis, and are en couraged to do so by their NCOs. The more knowledge Marines possess, the more successful they will be as individuals, as well as the USMC as a whole. The deep sense of professionalism and tradition is influenced heavily by the Marines who enforce the standards of the Corps. It is said that the Marine NCO is the Backbone of the Marine Corps. This can be attributed to the fact that it is the NCO, who enforces the regulations and standards of the Marine Corps.Non Commissioned Officers have a thorough understanding of Marine Corps Orders, and the Uniform Code of Military Justice. They make sure that Marines are conducting themselves professionally, and that they are proficient in their work. NCOs set the example by keeping a good personal appearance, attitude and sense of leadership at all times. These standards and traditions have remained strong until today because of strong NCOs. Throughout the many changes the world has experienced since the end of the Vietnam War, the Roles of the Marine Corps Non Commissioned Officer have remained the same.NCOs continuing to lead, train, set the example, and ensure Marine Corps standards are followed has contributed to the overall success of the Marine Corps. It is clear that one of the most important parts of the USMC is the role of the Marine Non Commissioned Officer. Bibliography History of the Marine NCO Student Guide. Quantico: United States Marine Corps EnlistedProfessional Military Education Curriculum Branch, 2011. The Marine Corps Organizational Structure Student Guide. Quantico: United States MarineCorps Enlisted Professional Military Education Curriculum Branch, 2010. Medal of Honor Sgt. Dakota Meyer Operation Enduring Freedom.Official U. S. Marine Corps Website: USMC Division of Public Affairs Media Team, 2011. http://www. marines. mil/community/Pages/MedalofHonorSgtDakotaMeyer-HeroicActions. aspx (accessedSeptember 7, 2011). Endnotes 1 History of the Marine NCO Student Guide. (Quantico: United States Marine Corp s Enlisted Professional Military Education Branch, 2011), 5. 2 Medal of Honor Sgt. Dakota Meyer Operation Enduring Freedom. (Official U. S. Marine Corps Website: USMC Division of Public Affairs Media Team, 2011), http://www. marines. mil/ community/Pages/MedalofHonorSgtDakotaMeyer-HeroicActions. aspx (accessed September 7, 2011).

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Gender Stereotyping is Unfairness Essay

The roles the society allocates to its members according to sex are the root course of how people relate to each other in the society. Those who don’t fit into predetermined gender roles face social sanctions. This paper reveals that the gender stereotyping in the society are unfair and amount to the abuse of the rights of those who don’t conform to the norms. The essay takes into consideration the origins of the social standards and experiences of life which are used on women. Devor’s essay reveals how gender stereotypes give rise to female to male transsexuals. This paper shall also analyze Alice Munro’s book, Boys and Girls that provides a literary example that complements Denvor’s scientific explanation. The paper will also be complemented by various views by feminists. Devor states that since time immemorial women were taken as less important than men. Women were not much recorded in writings on the society as men were. A close look at the writings of ancient religions e.g. Greek, Judaism, and the dark ages reveals this.   Cultures in the past have had individuals with mixed gender, who are based on polytheistic beliefs. In America this was identified in the 16th century. This was not written about as most of the writings focused on men thought to have female traits for social ridicule. In the twentieth century women became empowered and became workers due to the industrial age. In this time women who dressed like men were branded the title lesbians. This name later was used to refer to transgender women in the culture. Efforts to discover the trait of transgender individuals have been undertaken in the recent past however this phenomenon has been present in societies always. This phenomenon for long has been suppressed. Modern science has discovered the biological differences as well as psychological and social influences between men and women, and now the study of transsexuals can be studied and medication given. Devor argues that the context of culture is very important in understanding sex and gender. He states that the structure of the society determines the lives of individuals. Gender is a result of cultural influence on the members of the society. The relations in the society that enhance gender are rules of relations in the society. He observes that the society is responsible for its transgender individuals. They represent the mean of what the society has forced in the diverse human life (Dover 37). His argument is that the home is the place where the female to male transsexuals are bred. Most of the theories on transgender individuals put the responsibility of the situation on parents. For instance fathers are seen to impart the message that women are lesser to their daughters. Also mothers who appear victimized and dependent on the husband make their daughters attracted to be like men. This leads to a personality split, which is not illness, as some people believe. In the developmental years at the stage of early development those children with male to female traits do not identify with female relations in their childhood years.   The children in this stage identify themselves with masculine figures and preferred male company. In the final analysis there seems, on the part of these girls a desire to escape the problems of their gender. Transsexuals, therefore, are the result of intense socialization.   The process starts at early childhood and continues to build up in adolescence and even in adult life. She argues that people should be left to live and fully express the gender roles they choose. Most transsexuals don’t undergo the surgery to change their genitalia so they face continuing limitations in society. In spite of this they are able to achieve their goals in life.   As stated in the introduction, Alice Munro’s book, Boys and Girls supports Devor’s idea of sex and gender. The story of the girl narrator sheds light on Devor’s argument about gender stereotyping in the society. In the book Munro depicts challenges and successes in the process of passage from childhood to adulthood. Her narrators are a girl and a boy, who are siblings. She tackles the theme of sex role stereotype which is full of unfairness. The protagonist undergoes exacting and extreme initialization into adulthood like her younger brother. The author suggests that stereotyping of gender and loss of innocence are initiation into adulthood, and are extremely influential to individual children. Munro through the choice of a female protagonist who is without a name and therefore undignified lays he ground for showcasing the stereotype. The younger brother of the protagonist is named laid – for lord, and by virtue of the name he is to become a dignified master of others. The grandmother of the children comes calling and gives the narrator advice on the rules of conduct for a girl. For instance girls keep their legs together when they are seated. The narrator faces a disliking of the roles that she is being couched to take; those of her mother. She rather likes her father’s roles.

Ethical Dilemmas in Interpreting Essay

Ethical dilemmas in interpreting: case study 2 In the scenario, I am interpreting at a medical practice. The Service Provider (SP) is the GP practice and Service User (SU) is a patient. I arrive at the reception on time, the receptionist waves me in direction of the patient and then she answers a phone call. Then the patient is called into the consultation room. At the consultation room, I try to introduce myself and give my Code of Practice (CoP) to the doctor but he ignores me and asks what the problem with the patient is. I reply to him that he can ask the patient himself and I will interpret for him. Then the doctor ask me to take the patient back to the waiting room so I can interview her, while he sees another patient, then he will call us back. The following things went wrong during my job assignment: * The receptionist behaves unprofessionally because she shouldn’t leave me alone with the patient because this could cause me being partial and unsuitable to do this assignment. * The doctor ignores my introduction. The Code of Practice (section 5.24) says that Service Provider should â€Å"allow to interpreter to introduce him or herself†. Introduction is important because it allows me explain the rules and terms which I am going to follow during assignment. * The doctor should â€Å"address member of the public directly† (Code of Practice section 5.26). It is important that a service provider speaks directly to a service user, because it allows better communication and connection between, in this situation, patient and doctor, and SU doesn’t feel left out. * The doctor doesn’t want to interview the patient and ask me to leave the consultation room. The Code of Practice defines this problem as follows: â€Å"Conduct all of the interview yourself. It may be tempting to ask the interpreter to go off and have chat with your client, and then come back and tell you the relevant points, but the interpreter is not qualified to know what information to look for or how to process the information received.† (Code of Practice, section 5.29) I wasn’t sure what I should do as an interpreter to be in line with my Code of Practice. If I did what doctor asks, I wouldn’t be assertive and impartial (Code of Practice, section 2.4). If I refused to do what doctor insists, I would leave the patient without  any help. I decide to explain to the doctor what my job description is and ask him one more time to interview the patient. If doctor still refuses to do interview I ask him if would be possible to assign the patient to diffe rent doctor or nurse. After I finished assignment, I would report the incident with the doctor to the agency if I work for one or report it to practice’s manager if I am be freelance interpreter.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Prisoner Rehabilitation Essay

The rising inmate population and overcrowding in prisons is a problem. A lot of this problem comes from repeat offenders who have had a lack of prison rehabilitation. People have two different views about the prison system. The first is that prisons are â€Å"jails† and that everyone in the â€Å"jails† should suffer for their crimes. They feel since they are criminals and do not abide by the rules of society they should not be able to become part of a society. Others view prisons as correctional facilities where prisoners can accept their mistakes and be rehabilitated, eventually being assimilated. I feel that that â€Å"jails† are from criminals such as rapists, murders and other criminals that clearly will never be able to accept the rules society and show no hope of being rehabilitated. On the other hand I feel that some criminals see the light of there mistakes while in prison and want to move on and hopefully never return to prison. But prisoners loathing for prison alone cannot guarantee prisoners to not end up in the same position once free. Prisoners need to be cured in more ways than fearing punishment. I feel these prisoners need to be rehabilitated to the point that at the end of there sentence they realize that committing crimes is only a way out and feel they will not fall back into a life of crime and be ready to enter society as a free man with some aspirations of a law abiding life. But usually this never happens because of the way prison rehabilitation is. Prison Rehabilitation is mostly the experience of prison itself where you go in to a place that makes you live around criminals and never get out of the criminal mind state and never can grow to realize your mistakes and move on in your life. Towards the end of your sentence there is usally no help to integrate back into society at all, which is the most critical time for help. It seems to me that during the last years of a prisoner who has a good prison record’s sentence they should be eligible to enroll in correctional prisons that weren’t required to be paroled but provided a alternative to â€Å"jail† and provided you with not only more freedoms than jail but an opportunity to make it a smaller step into the real world than coming right from jail. This correctional facility soul purpose would be to rehabilitate while still providing similar jail atmosphere. It would be mandatory to take high school or college classes or be trained in certain vocational areas where your grades would determine eligibility. Along with these classes there would be a series of other classes that would integrate you back with society. This would be totally up to the prisoner to maintain and get the most out of this because that is what you have to do to succeed and be rehabilitated.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Google HRM Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

Google HRM - Term Paper Example The current paper presents Google as one of the most well known online companies in the world. Many internet companies came into existence after the internet bubble of last decade of 20th century. It is important to note that not all of them were extremely successful and many reported heavy losses. Google was an exception in the internet industry because it was not only successful in surviving but was also successful in growing into a giant corporation. The progress the company has made is tremendous and it is one of the most successful internet firms that are still standing tall today. The rapid growth of Google is mainly because of its innovative culture and leadership. The reasons behind the success of Google are its management style, leadership, innovative culture, and eye opening human resource management practices. The company is such a big name today because of its employees. Google employees are known to be innovative and out of the box thinkers. The company has set new prece dents in the field of human resource management and organizational behavior. Constant innovation has made Google what it is today. The company never stopped after their famous search engine rather they used their search engine to start an advertisement program which helped them grow even more. Today Google is still coming up with newer products so that its name remains in the minds of the consumers. It is because of this approach that Google has earned the reputation of trend setter in the internet industry. ... The company is such a big name today because of its employees. Google employees are known to be innovative and out of the box thinkers. The company has set new precedents in the field of human resource management and organizational behavior. Constant innovation has made Google what it is today. The company never stopped after their famous search engine rather they used their search engine to start an advertisement program which helped them grow even more. Today Google is still coming up with newer products so that its name remains in the minds of the consumers. It is because of this approach that Google has earned the reputation of trend setter in the internet industry. Human Resource Management at Google The human resource management policy and practice of Google is exemplary. The position that Google has attained today in the world is mainly due to its innovative employees and HR policies. Employees are given a free hand to a great extent in the company. Employee freedom is one of the main characteristics of organizational culture at Google. The company has a clan culture where everyone interacts with each other freely. Treatment of employees at Google is also quite different from other companies. Facilities offered by Google are so amazing that every computer science related person on the planet wants to work in the company. Below we will discuss different functions of human resource management at Google. Job design, training, recruitment, selection, performance appraisal, promotion system, pay, and general supervisory style of Google will be discussed in detail below. Job Design Issues The main jobs at Google are innovative in nature. Employees are required to come up with new

Thursday, September 12, 2019

HRD Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

HRD - Essay Example anagement ensures that the organization has an adequate number of employees to meet the demands of the organization based on ten level, skill and goals of the organization. Human resource management also plays a role in job analysis, where it looks at the specifics of the job and describes the nature of the job, as well as the human requirements that one should have in order to participate in the said job. This is important to the organization as it spells out what any given employee is expected to do as long as he or she is under the employ of the organization, and they gather information for the organization on the employees. The third role is staffing, where human resource management recruits employees after the job is analyzed and human planning are done, in reverse order. Recruiting draws suitable candidates interested in the job and evaluates them for the purpose of meeting the requirements of the job analysis, as well as human resource planning. In this case, human resource pl anning determines the goals and the people required to fulfill the tasks of the organization. With this in mind, job analysis is used to look into the staffing requirements in order for recruitment to occur successfully. In all the three roles discussed above, a number of roles remain affected by the influence of outsourcing and technology. First off, outsourcing affects the human resources planning role in an organization in that foreign organizations or subcontracted companies usually come in to conduct assessment and plan for the organization based on its needs and goals, as well as its power in terms of output. This is also affected by technology in that technology at times influences planning by eliminating the need for employees to fulfill certain tasks. Instead, technology is factored in to take over the roles that are usually conducted by employees leaving the slots redundant for human employment. Another role is affected by outsourcing and technology is staffing, where an

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Dissatisfaction of employees in organization Assignment

Dissatisfaction of employees in organization - Assignment Example However, every employee has certain expectations from the company for, which they deliver their services. An employee craves for variable returns for his/her services being rendered to the organisation. A dis-satisfied employee may face variable amount of problems, which may result in decline of the productivity of the employees that will drastically affect the overall performance of an organisation (Anderson, 2011). Effective leadership quality and application of advanced procedures will ensure in directing the employees to the attainment of business objectives. In this context, dis-satisfaction among the employees arises due to ineffective management systems prevailing within the organisations. The paper intends to discuss about the problem prevailing within the organisation mentioned in the case study. The study also lays a dis-satisfaction amidst the employees and its adverse effects on productivity. In this respect, the current issues that are creating various factors of indiffe rences of a chosen organisational situation will be analysed upon. And based on the analysis, effective measures for curbing out the issues to improve the organisational situation will be determined thereon. ... An in depth analysis provides a clearer picture of that presented the aspects of inequalities within the organisation. This aspect seemed to take a negative turn within the entire organisation. It was learned that all the employees who were working within the organisation were not treated in an equal manner. It has been affirmed form the case scenario that the employees who dedicatedly invested their time and effort in meeting up the business requirements were not given equal treatments, benefits and perks as compared to other employees. This created a dis-satisfaction among the employees, which affected the productivity of the organisation. According to the brief scenario, broader benefits comprised of different opportunities pertaining to learning of multiple languages. The other benefits included proper motivation, opportunities pertaining to receiving scholarships, different forms of training among other beneficial factors. On the other hand, the scenario was totally different. T he other bunch of employees who seem to work very hard for the sake of the organisation did not received any returns from the organisation’s end. It seemed that all of efforts were simply getting wasted as there was no one to recognise their hard work. And these aspects ultimately lead to dissatisfaction among the employees as they were not receiving any kind of benefits or motivational support. The medical hospital mainly dealt with patients who suffered serious issues pertaining to addiction. In the addiction section of the particular organisation/ mental hospital, there were three types of staffs that mainly consisted of doctors, psychologists and nurses. It was around 100 employees who served in that particular section of the

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Racial Disproportionality in the United States Prison System Research Paper

Racial Disproportionality in the United States Prison System - Research Paper Example Information gathered by the Political Research Associates (2005) reveal that the criminal justice system is generally racist. Even as most people in the US feel that we have already overcome our racist history, these practices are still very much apparent in our society today. This is apparent in the fact that, out of the 2.1 million adult men and women in our prisons, about 70% of these are blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and other racial minorities. These people of color are being imprisoned at a rate which is very much disproportionate, and they are not given access to the rehabilitation options which are often given to their white counterparts; they are also more prone to abuse and harassment by various government agencies (Political Research Associates, 2005). Although rates of crime commission are higher among people of color, they are also being disproportionately targeted in terms of unfair treatment within the criminal justice system. Only about 12.7% of the US population is made up of Black-Americans, however, 2003 surveys reveal that they comprise 48.2% of the adult population in federal, state, and local prisons (Prison Activist Resource Center, 2003). In relation to drug abuse, the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse declare that 72% drug users are whites, and only 15% are blacks; and yet, a greater percentage of blacks are imprisoned for drug offences (in Human Rights Watch, 2000). The Latin population makes up only about 11% of the US population, and about 10% of overall drug users in the US; however, 18.6% of the US prison population is made up of these Latinos, and 22.5% of them have been convicted for drug-related crimes (Political Research Associates, 2005). In relation to the death penalty convicts, a significant percentage (42.5%) are African-Americans, and these numbers represent more than three times the percentage for African Americans in the entire US population (Political Research Associates, 2005). Surveys carried out in 2003 also revealed that whites were imprisoned at a rate of 376 for every 100,000 individuals. This is in stark contrast to the statistics for people of color, with Indians imprisoned at a rate o f 709 for every 100,000, Latinos at 997 per 100,000 of their population, and for the African-Americans, at a rate of 2526 for every 100,000 (Political Research Associates, 2005). African-American males already have a 32% probability of serving time at any point in their lives; Hispanics are at a 17% probability; and for whites, they have a significantly lower probability of spending any time in jail at 6% (Political Research Associates, 2005). In reviewing this disproportionate trend in the American prison systems, it is necessary to evaluate the practices in the criminal justice system which has caused this racial disproportion in the American prisons. First of all, among adult drivers, blacks have an 11.2% probability of being pulled over as compared to

Monday, September 9, 2019

Writting- Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Writting- - Essay Example I was to sit and work from this part of the office. The organization where I started my internship deals in health care. They run about twelve health care homes where patients are admitted. Moreover, they also deal in providing medical equipment, like wheel chairs, and other medical supplies, including insulin and other medication to vendors, who, in turn, provide these to patients. My work involves conducting patient satisfaction surveys over the phone. I have to make calls to the patients and ask them various questions regarding their satisfaction; this includes asking them if the delivery of the medical equipment was timely and in working order. After each survey, I have to submit the findings to my supervisor who analyzes them and then puts the information into the database. I also have to arrange and organize the files of the patients who apply to the home health aid organization. This includes the files of the patients who get accepted to the homes as well as those whose applications are rejected by the organization. I have to arrange and sort through these files and ensure that the filing remains up to date. It is interesting work as not only do I work with filing, but I also interact with patients. This helps me to stay in touch with the people who are involved in the organization – I stay in contact with my colleagues as well as the patients who come to the organization. I feel more fulfilled at my work place because I believe that my job helps to improve the organization that has employed me; I am involved in gathering feedback from the patients with regard to the organization, and then handing it to my supervisor who makes sure that the information is noted down for any action that may be required. My internship, therefore, gives me a sense of accomplishment, and I am glad to be given this

Sunday, September 8, 2019

FINISH LINE Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

FINISH LINE - Essay Example Connick mentions that seasonal sales period is a high time for a store to make greater profits, but it comes with difficulties, as well. During the busy season, avoiding stock out is imperative. A seasonal stock should be carefully monitored on a daily basis and to avoid empty stock, the store manager must call the warehouse every day for that. Finish Line must take care of everyday pricing, assortment, space management, inventory management on a daily basis, and must show prowess in handling business decisions when it comes to seasonal products. There are many people complaining about wrong shoe size or the shoes that are outdated in fashion terms. There are researches, like the one mentioned by Better Health Channel (2013), that put high emphasis on foot care when it comes to running and jogging. So, the customers need the types of shoes that are not only in fashion but also take care of their feet. The buyers are the ones that have to face a lot of risk because even if Finish Line takes three months as its lead time, the other shoe making companies mentioned in the case study take at least six months. This means that customers have to wait for long to see what would be the changes in fashion in the offing. A new fashion is most likely to show up in six months. If the customer rates store A high in style-by-style ranking, store B lesser than that and store C the least in ranking then Finish Line would have to make decisions in keeping the inventory of store A available at all the time. The reason is very evident; if the customers have ranked according to style, then this means that they are fashion conscious and want to look up to date in shoe styling. This gives rise to the fact that the customers that ranked store A high in style would, most of the times, like to buy from store A. Straightforwardly, Finish Line would have to take special care of inventory management at store A. Considering this scenario